Presentation on theme: "Management Information Systems Robert Monroe September 1, 2010"— Presentation transcript:
170-451 Management Information Systems Robert Monroe September 1, 2010 IT InfrastructureManagement Information SystemsRobert MonroeSeptember 1, 2010
2After Today's Class You Should Be Able To: Explain the difference between hardware, software, networks, and data, and the role that each of them play in an organization's IT infrastructureIdentify some of the key elements of a typical IT infrastructure for small, medium, and large organizationsExplain what the different elements do and why they are important
3Quick Review: IS Functions And Resources Source: James O’Brien, Management Information Systems, 6th ed.
5Principle: Systems Are Built From Components ServerServerChipsRAMDisksPCB’sOutputDevicesInputChipsRAMDisksPCB’sOutputDevicesInputRouterServerServerFirewallSANPDAPDAPC…PCPCSmartCardPCComponentsIT DevicesIS Infrastructure
6Binary Encoding: Computing With 0’s and 1’s Computers process binary representations of dataAll data (and programs) encoded as sequences of 0’s and 1’sExamples:Numbers: = 4310(1·32) + (0·16) + (1·8) + (0·4) + (1·2) + (1·1) = 43Letters: (ASCII) = ‘A’(ASCII) = ‘B’Booleans: 0 = False1 = TrueBinary representations work well with digital electronicsElectrical current present → 1No electical current present → 0
7Transistors and Logic Gates Transistors are digital switches that either block an electrical current or allow it to passThis property allows them to store state and implement Boolean Logic operationsTransistors form the basis for modern microelectronicsLogic Gates implement Boolean operationsAND GateOR GateNOT Gate(inverter)
8Moore’s LawTransistor density on integrated circuits doubles about every two years.- Gordon Moore, 1965
9Moore’s LawTransistor density on integrated circuits doubles about every two years.- Gordon Moore, 1965
10Moore’s LawTransistor density on integrated circuits doubles about every two years.- Gordon Moore, 1965
11Implications of Moore’s Law The computing power that can be acquired for $X has approximately doubled every two years since 1965The cost of a given amount of computing power (Y) has fallen by approximately half every two years since 1965There is much debate about how long Moore’s law will continue to holdIt’s been declared dead many times before…There is also much debate whether it is less important now than it has been for the past two decades
12It’s Not Just Integrated Circuits! Over the past decades there have also been exponential improvements in:Random Access Memory (MB/$)Hard disk drive capacity (MB/$)Network bandwidth (MB/sec/$)Implications:This industry dynamic should inform your hardware strategyAs the cost of computing power has plummeted, people continue to apply IT to new, bigger, and harder problemsThis trend is likely to continue
14ChipsIntegrated Circuits (ICs) are thin pieces of silicon with millions of transistors, arranged to perform specific computational tasksMicroprocessorsA programmable general processing chipThe Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer is generally a microprocessorMemoryRandom Access Memory (RAM)Read Only Memory (ROM)Volatile vs non-volatile (flash)
15A packaged microprocessor ChipsHigh fixed costs to produce a modern ICVery expensive to designFabrication plants (fabs) can be tremendously expensiveVery low marginal costsDriven primarily by yieldTypes of IC’sMicroprocessors, RAM, CCD sensors, nano-tech, …An IC schematicA packaged microprocessor
16Printed Circuit Boards Hold chips in placeSend power to chipsRoute signals between chipsRoute signals to external computing componentsExamples:MotherboardsGraphics cardsNetwork Interface CardsCellphone backplane
17Connectors and Interfaces Connectors link electronic components togetherInterfaces are the points where components meetCommon types of connectors:Printed Circuit BoardsSystem bus (built into motherboard, managed by chipset)CablesEthernet (Cat 5) -- label and pass aroundUSB – Universal Serial BusFirewire (IEEE 1394)SCSI – Small Computer System InterfacePowerVideoNetwork Interface Card
18Power and Heat Electronic devices need power to operate Two common sources:Power from the electric grid (plug it into the wall)BatteriesElectrical usage generates heatToo much heat damages electronicsDispersing heat from electronic devices is criticalMany technologies to do soHeat sinksAirflow (fans)Liquid cooling
19StorageData storage is handled with many different types of devices in a Memory HierarchySource: James O’Brien, Management Information Systems, 6th ed.
20Storage Primary storage On-line storage Near-line storage Registers on CPUProcessor cacheRAMOn-line storageFlash memoryHard disk drivesNear-line storageCD-ROM, DVD-ROMCD-RW/DVD-RWOff-line storageTape drivesTape vaultsTape bunkers (disaster recovery)Source: James O’Brien, Management Information Systems, 6th ed.
21Storage Devices RAM Flash Memory Tape Cartridge Hard Disk Drive (opened)
22Measuring Storage Capacity and Performance Two basic units of measurement for storageCapacity1 Byte of data ≈ 1 character of storage (e.g. ‘a’)MegaBytes (MB) – 1 MB ≈ 1 Million Bytes (≈ 1 minute of music)GigaBytes (GB) – 1 GB ≈ 1 Billion Bytes (≈ 20 minutes DVD video)Terrabytes (TB) – 1 TB ≈ 1 Trillion Bytes (≈ Google Earth Database)Access SpeedHow fast can the processor retrieve the data from memoryMicroseconds (μs) – 1 millionth of 1 second (10-6)Milliseconds (ms) – 1 thousandth of 1 second (10-3)Another key metric for storage capability is how robust and fault tolerant the storage device isGenerally measured as Mean Time To Failure (MTTF)Robustness is generally increased through redundancy
24Operating SystemsAn Operating System (OS) is software that handles the basic functions of a computerSource: James O’Brien, Management Information Systems, 6th ed.
25Common Operating Systems There are many Operating Systems and OS vendors such as:Microsoft Windows (Windows 7, 2008 Server, Mobile, etc.)Linus and UNIX (Sun Solaris, HP-UX, IBM AIX, etc.)Mac OS X (Apple’s proprietary OS)Symbian (phone OS)iOS (iPhone, iPad)Google AndroidIBM OS/390 and z/OS (mainframes)IBM OS/400 (common legacy midrange system)DEC VAX (common legacy midrange system)Software applications are often written to a specific OS
26Database Management Systems (DBMS) Database Management System software manages the capture, storage, organization, retrieval, and presentation of a company’s dataBusiness Intelligence (BI) tools work with DBMS’s to help people analyze, visualize, and interpret the data stored in the underlying databases.We will study DBMS’s and BI tools in much greater detail later in the course
27SCM, ERP, and CRM Systems… which we will discuss in detail next week
28Communications Software Software to help people communicate, collaborate, and share informationExamples?
29Custom ApplicationsAny software application written for a specific business (bespoke software)Often, much of the true business value that an information system creates comes from the custom applications created for it, or the systems integration work done to customize existing applications to work exactly the way that the business needs them to workWhat examples of high-value custom applications have we discussed in previous classes?
31Building IT Devices From Components ChipsRAMDisksPCB’sOutputDevicesInputServerOperating SystemServerNetworkMgmt SysChipsRAMDisksPCB’sOutputDevicesInput…Operating SystemServerServerFirewallSANPDAPDAPCPCPCSmartCardPCComponentsIT DevicesIS Infrastructure
32Computer Categories: Client Systems Desktops and laptopsStandard tools for knowledge workersGenerally commodity items nowRun productivity tools locallyProvide access to network resourcesThin-client network computersRun applications over the networkLittle or no local storage (no hard drive)Requires access to server to do useful workMobile devicesMobile phonesPDA’sTablet computers and netbooksCustom client hardware (FedEx or DHL delivery computers)
33Computer Categories: Back-End Systems ServersBuilt from (powerful) PC componentsGenerally located in controlled environment and accessed remotelyDesigned to support multiple users, generally for dedicated tasksGenerally run a Unix variant (including Linux) or a MS Windows Server variantMainframesVery large computers designed to support hundreds of users concurrentlyEmphasis on very, very high reliability and concurrent usageStill a viable platform for some applicationsMany, many legacy systems running on mainframesMidrange (mini) computersNot widely used for new systemsLots of legacy systems still runningVax and HP are most common systems
34Storage SystemsStorage systems provide large, shared repositories for dataAdvantages of a storage system include:Shared data and storage space between computersHigher reliability and availability than individual devicesSingle point for administration and maintenanceDisadvantages include:Much higher cost per GB of storage (~ 3x to 100x the cost/GB)More complex to configure and administerCommon storage systems include:RAID arraysFile serversNetwork Attached Storage (NAS)Storage Area Networks (SAN)
35Dedicated Hardware Devices Mobile phonesXbox 360, Wii, Playstation 3Flight simulatorsAutomotive informatics (nav systems, audio, etc…)Factory control systemsComputer Numeric Control (CNC) machining toolsDVR’s and Satellite TV boxes
37Common Networking Equipment Network Interface Cards (NICs) provide an interface from a computer to a networkHubs and switches concentrate connections from clients (computers) in a networkRouters and Gateways form connections between networks (internetworking)Firewalls limit the types of connections a computer will accept from the network, and from whom it will accept them
38Putting It All Together: Prototypical Network Source: O’Brien, Management Information Systems, 6th ed.
40Constructing Information Systems Infrastructure From IT Devices
41Putting It All Together: IS Infrastructure ChipsRAMDisksPCB’sOutputDevicesInputServerOperating SystemServerNetworkMgmt SysChipsRAMDisksPCB’sOutputDevicesInput…Operating SystemServerServerFirewallSANPDAPDAPCPCPCSmartCardPCComponentsIT DevicesIS Infrastructure
42Putting It All Together: Systems Architecting Successful information system deployment and adoption requires an IT infrastructure that is:Reliable (highly available)RobustManagableCost effectiveAchieving these goals requires careful planning, management, and investmentThis is the responsibility and role of a Systems Architect
47Data Centers Provide Core physical infrastructure PowerHVACFire prevention and suppressionSeismic monitoring and bracingPhysical securityHardware, networking, software infrastructureRack spaceNetworking infrastructure (big pipes, lots of ‘em)ServersStorageBackupManagement services (optional)NOC
48Managing IT Infrastructure: TCO Total Cost of Ownership is more important than purchase price.The cost to power, support, and update hardware devices over their useful lifetime often exceeds initial purchase price.Some challenges in building a hardware infrastructure include:Understanding where your true costs of ownership lieIdentifying what is essential and what is notTraining and managing qualified personnelFeed and caring (maintenance) of machines and networkSoftware licensingSoftware and hardware obsolescence and upgrade cyclesMaintaining inventory (spares)Power and HVAC
49TCO Exercise:Write down five recurring expenses that an organization incurs in running a large information system in a data center.
50Backup and Disaster Recovery Provided by data centers, specialists, or in-housePut together a plan for disaster scenariosEvaluate cost of downtimeDevise plans to handle disastersPlan DR strategy based on cost/benefit analysisDisaster Recovery ServicesData backup and storage (host-site, cold-site)Data recovery and restorationBusiness process fallback plans
51Backup and Disaster Recovery How do you know how much to spend for backup? For disaster recovery?How do you decide how often to back up your organization’s data?
52Network Operations Center (NOC) A NOC provides:System monitoringTech support callsOn-site techniciansNetwork securityPlatform adminApplication admin
53User Support Center (Help Desk) Everything to this point has focused on keeping the system running smoothlyWhat about handling user problems?There are analagous processes and procedures for dealing with usersUser support center (phones, , IM)Troubleshooting guidesProcesses for common requestsEscalation proceduresetc.
54Strategic Question: Outsource Your Data Center? Host Yourself:Better controlEasier to update system quickly (Warning! Danger!)More expensive to do well than 3rd party hostingMuch harder to build a robust data center yourself than to rent facility and expertise.3rd Party hostingQuickly get a highly robust infrastructureNo need to develop data center staff expertiseGenerally cheaper and easier overall than building yourselfLoss of controlThis can be both a blessing and a curse
55Recap: After Today's Class You Should Be Able To: Explain the difference between hardware, software, networks, and data, and the role that each of them play in an organization's IT infrastructureIdentify some of the key elements of a typical IT infrastructure for small, medium, and large organizationsExplain what the different elements do and why they are important
56For Monday:Monday we will look at Customer Relationship Management Systems (CRM)More detailed information is available on the wikiReadings will be up on wiki tomorrow