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Carnegie Mellon University ©2006 - 2010 Robert T. Monroe 70-451 Management Information Systems IT Infrastructure 70-451 Management Information Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Carnegie Mellon University ©2006 - 2010 Robert T. Monroe 70-451 Management Information Systems IT Infrastructure 70-451 Management Information Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems IT Infrastructure Management Information Systems Robert Monroe September 1, 2010

2 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems After Today's Class You Should Be Able To: Explain the difference between hardware, software, networks, and data, and the role that each of them play in an organization's IT infrastructure Identify some of the key elements of a typical IT infrastructure for small, medium, and large organizations Explain what the different elements do and why they are important

3 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Quick Review: IS Functions And Resources Source: James OBrien, Management Information Systems, 6 th ed.

4 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Computer Engineering in 5 Minutes!

5 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Principle: Systems Are Built From Components Chips RAM Disks PCBs Output Devices Input Devices ComponentsIS Infrastructure Server SAN Router Firewall PC PDA … Smart Card IT Devices Chips RAM Disks PCBs Output Devices Input Devices Server

6 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Binary Encoding: Computing With 0s and 1s Computers process binary representations of data –All data (and programs) encoded as sequences of 0s and 1s Examples: –Numbers: = (1·32) + (0·16) + (1·8) + (0·4) + (1·2) + (1·1) = 43 –Letters: (ASCII) = A (ASCII) = B –Booleans: 0 = False 1 = True Binary representations work well with digital electronics –Electrical current present 1 –No electical current present 0

7 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Transistors and Logic Gates Transistors are digital switches that either block an electrical current or allow it to pass This property allows them to store state and implement Boolean Logic operations Transistors form the basis for modern microelectronics Logic Gates implement Boolean operations AND GateOR GateNOT Gate (inverter)

8 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Moores Law Transistor density on integrated circuits doubles about every two years. - Gordon Moore, 1965

9 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Moores Law Transistor density on integrated circuits doubles about every two years. - Gordon Moore, 1965

10 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Moores Law Transistor density on integrated circuits doubles about every two years. - Gordon Moore, 1965

11 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Implications of Moores Law The computing power that can be acquired for $X has approximately doubled every two years since 1965 The cost of a given amount of computing power (Y) has fallen by approximately half every two years since 1965 There is much debate about how long Moores law will continue to hold –Its been declared dead many times before… There is also much debate whether it is less important now than it has been for the past two decades

12 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Its Not Just Integrated Circuits! Over the past decades there have also been exponential improvements in: –Random Access Memory (MB/$) –Hard disk drive capacity (MB/$) –Network bandwidth (MB/sec/$) Implications: –This industry dynamic should inform your hardware strategy –As the cost of computing power has plummeted, people continue to apply IT to new, bigger, and harder problems –This trend is likely to continue

13 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Hardware Components

14 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Chips Integrated Circuits (ICs) are thin pieces of silicon with millions of transistors, arranged to perform specific computational tasks Microprocessors –A programmable general processing chip –The Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer is generally a microprocessor Memory –Random Access Memory (RAM) –Read Only Memory (ROM) –Volatile vs non-volatile (flash)

15 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Chips High fixed costs to produce a modern IC –Very expensive to design –Fabrication plants (fabs) can be tremendously expensive Very low marginal costs –Driven primarily by yield Types of ICs –Microprocessors, RAM, CCD sensors, nano-tech, … An IC schematic A packaged microprocessor

16 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Printed Circuit Boards Hold chips in place Send power to chips Route signals between chips Route signals to external computing components Examples: –Motherboards –Graphics cards –Network Interface Cards –Cellphone backplane

17 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Connectors and Interfaces Connectors link electronic components together Interfaces are the points where components meet Common types of connectors: –Printed Circuit Boards –System bus (built into motherboard, managed by chipset) –Cables Ethernet (Cat 5) -- label and pass around USB – Universal Serial Bus Firewire (IEEE 1394) SCSI – Small Computer System Interface Power Video –Network Interface Card

18 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Power and Heat Electronic devices need power to operate Two common sources: –Power from the electric grid (plug it into the wall) –Batteries Electrical usage generates heat Too much heat damages electronics Dispersing heat from electronic devices is critical Many technologies to do so –Heat sinks –Airflow (fans) –Liquid cooling

19 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Storage Data storage is handled with many different types of devices in a Memory Hierarchy Source: James OBrien, Management Information Systems, 6 th ed.

20 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Storage Primary storage –Registers on CPU –Processor cache –RAM On-line storage –Flash memory –Hard disk drives Near-line storage –CD-ROM, DVD-ROM –CD-RW/DVD-RW Off-line storage –Tape drives –Tape vaults –Tape bunkers (disaster recovery) Source: James OBrien, Management Information Systems, 6 th ed.

21 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Storage Devices Flash Memory Tape Cartridge Hard Disk Drive (opened) RAM

22 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Measuring Storage Capacity and Performance Two basic units of measurement for storage –Capacity 1 Byte of data 1 character of storage (e.g. a) MegaBytes (MB) – 1 MB 1 Million Bytes ( 1 minute of music) GigaBytes (GB) – 1 GB 1 Billion Bytes ( 20 minutes DVD video) Terrabytes (TB) – 1 TB 1 Trillion Bytes ( Google Earth Database) –Access Speed How fast can the processor retrieve the data from memory Microseconds (μs) – 1 millionth of 1 second (10 -6 ) Milliseconds (ms) – 1 thousandth of 1 second (10 -3 ) Another key metric for storage capability is how robust and fault tolerant the storage device is –Generally measured as Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) –Robustness is generally increased through redundancy

23 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Software Components

24 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Operating Systems An Operating System (OS) is software that handles the basic functions of a computer Source: James OBrien, Management Information Systems, 6 th ed.

25 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Common Operating Systems There are many Operating Systems and OS vendors such as: –Microsoft Windows (Windows 7, 2008 Server, Mobile, etc.) –Linus and UNIX (Sun Solaris, HP-UX, IBM AIX, etc.) –Mac OS X (Apples proprietary OS) –Symbian (phone OS) –iOS (iPhone, iPad) –Google Android –IBM OS/390 and z/OS (mainframes) –IBM OS/400 (common legacy midrange system) –DEC VAX (common legacy midrange system) Software applications are often written to a specific OS

26 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Database Management Systems (DBMS) Database Management System software manages the capture, storage, organization, retrieval, and presentation of a companys data Business Intelligence (BI) tools work with DBMSs to help people analyze, visualize, and interpret the data stored in the underlying databases. We will study DBMSs and BI tools in much greater detail later in the course

27 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems SCM, ERP, and CRM Systems … which we will discuss in detail next week

28 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Communications Software Software to help people communicate, collaborate, and share information Examples?

29 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Custom Applications Any software application written for a specific business (bespoke software) Often, much of the true business value that an information system creates comes from the custom applications created for it, or the systems integration work done to customize existing applications to work exactly the way that the business needs them to work What examples of high-value custom applications have we discussed in previous classes?

30 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Building IT Devices from Components

31 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Building IT Devices From Components ComponentsIS Infrastructure Server SAN Firewall PC PDA Smart Card IT Devices Chips RAM Disks PCBs Output Devices Input Devices … Operating System Chips RAM Disks PCBs Output Devices Input Devices Server Operating System Network Mgmt Sys

32 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Computer Categories: Client Systems Desktops and laptops –Standard tools for knowledge workers –Generally commodity items now –Run productivity tools locally –Provide access to network resources Thin-client network computers –Run applications over the network –Little or no local storage (no hard drive) –Requires access to server to do useful work Mobile devices –Mobile phones –PDAs –Tablet computers and netbooks –Custom client hardware (FedEx or DHL delivery computers)

33 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Computer Categories: Back-End Systems Servers –Built from (powerful) PC components –Generally located in controlled environment and accessed remotely –Designed to support multiple users, generally for dedicated tasks –Generally run a Unix variant (including Linux) or a MS Windows Server variant Mainframes –Very large computers designed to support hundreds of users concurrently –Emphasis on very, very high reliability and concurrent usage –Still a viable platform for some applications –Many, many legacy systems running on mainframes Midrange (mini) computers –Not widely used for new systems –Lots of legacy systems still running –Vax and HP are most common systems

34 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Storage Systems Storage systems provide large, shared repositories for data Advantages of a storage system include: –Shared data and storage space between computers –Higher reliability and availability than individual devices –Single point for administration and maintenance Disadvantages include: –Much higher cost per GB of storage (~ 3x to 100x the cost/GB) –More complex to configure and administer Common storage systems include: –RAID arrays –File servers –Network Attached Storage (NAS) –Storage Area Networks (SAN)

35 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Dedicated Hardware Devices Mobile phones Xbox 360, Wii, Playstation 3 Flight simulators Automotive informatics (nav systems, audio, etc…) Factory control systems Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machining tools DVRs and Satellite TV boxes

36 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Networking

37 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Common Networking Equipment Network Interface Cards (NICs) provide an interface from a computer to a network Hubs and switches concentrate connections from clients (computers) in a network Routers and Gateways form connections between networks (internetworking) Firewalls limit the types of connections a computer will accept from the network, and from whom it will accept them

38 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Putting It All Together: Prototypical Network Source: OBrien, Management Information Systems, 6 th ed.

39 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Network Stacks Source: OBrien, Management Information Systems, 6 th ed. (TCP) (IP) (HTTP)

40 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Constructing Information Systems Infrastructure From IT Devices

41 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Putting It All Together: IS Infrastructure ComponentsIS Infrastructure Server SAN Firewall PC PDA Smart Card IT Devices Chips RAM Disks PCBs Output Devices Input Devices … Operating System Chips RAM Disks PCBs Output Devices Input Devices Server Operating System Network Mgmt Sys

42 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Putting It All Together: Systems Architecting Successful information system deployment and adoption requires an IT infrastructure that is: –Reliable (highly available) –Robust –Managable –Cost effective Achieving these goals requires careful planning, management, and investment This is the responsibility and role of a Systems Architect

43 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Systems Architecting: Building Blocks Client machines –PCs –PDAs –Cell phones –Etc… Servers –File Servers –Web Servers –Mail Servers –Etc… Software –Operating systems –Web, application, servers –Network management systems Networking equipment –Firewalls –Routers –Gateways –Load Balancers Storage systems –File servers –RAID arrays –Storage Area Networks (SANs) –Network Attached Storage (NAS) Uninteruptable power supplies Heating, Ventilation, Cooling (HVAC)

44 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Example: System Architecture Diagram

45 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems The Data Center A data center provides the technical physical infrastructure to run your web business

46 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems The Data Center

47 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Data Centers Provide Core physical infrastructure –Power –HVAC –Fire prevention and suppression –Seismic monitoring and bracing –Physical security Hardware, networking, software infrastructure –Rack space –Networking infrastructure (big pipes, lots of em) –Servers –Storage –Backup Management services (optional) –NOC

48 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Managing IT Infrastructure: TCO Total Cost of Ownership is more important than purchase price. The cost to power, support, and update hardware devices over their useful lifetime often exceeds initial purchase price. Some challenges in building a hardware infrastructure include: –Understanding where your true costs of ownership lie –Identifying what is essential and what is not –Training and managing qualified personnel –Feed and caring (maintenance) of machines and network –Software licensing –Software and hardware obsolescence and upgrade cycles –Maintaining inventory (spares) –Power and HVAC

49 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems TCO Exercise: Write down five recurring expenses that an organization incurs in running a large information system in a data center.

50 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Backup and Disaster Recovery Provided by data centers, specialists, or in-house Put together a plan for disaster scenarios –Evaluate cost of downtime –Devise plans to handle disasters –Plan DR strategy based on cost/benefit analysis Disaster Recovery Services –Data backup and storage (host-site, cold-site) –Data recovery and restoration –Business process fallback plans

51 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Backup and Disaster Recovery How do you know how much to spend for backup? For disaster recovery? How do you decide how often to back up your organizations data?

52 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Network Operations Center (NOC) A NOC provides: System monitoring Tech support calls On-site technicians Network security Platform admin Application admin

53 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems User Support Center (Help Desk) Everything to this point has focused on keeping the system running smoothly What about handling user problems? There are analagous processes and procedures for dealing with users –User support center (phones, , IM) –Troubleshooting guides –Processes for common requests –Escalation procedures –etc.

54 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Strategic Question: Outsource Your Data Center? Host Yourself: Better control Easier to update system quickly (Warning! Danger!) More expensive to do well than 3rd party hosting Much harder to build a robust data center yourself than to rent facility and expertise. 3rd Party hosting Quickly get a highly robust infrastructure No need to develop data center staff expertise Generally cheaper and easier overall than building yourself Loss of control –This can be both a blessing and a curse

55 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems Recap: After Today's Class You Should Be Able To: Explain the difference between hardware, software, networks, and data, and the role that each of them play in an organization's IT infrastructure Identify some of the key elements of a typical IT infrastructure for small, medium, and large organizations Explain what the different elements do and why they are important

56 Carnegie Mellon University © Robert T. Monroe Management Information Systems For Monday: Monday we will look at Customer Relationship Management Systems (CRM) More detailed information is available on the wiki –Readings will be up on wiki tomorrow


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