2 Objectives Summarize how a CPU and RAM work together Contrast primary and secondary storageCompare the features of four secondary storage devicesIdentify three types of connectors and the peripherals that use each
3 Key Terms Graphic Card / Video Card Central Processing Unit (CPU) Cloud StorageHardwarePeripheralRandom Access MemoryUniversal Serial Bus (USB)
4 Input Device (continued) Graphics Card (Major) Graphics cards, video cards or video adapters and they're responsible for putting the image generated by the computer onto a monitor. The display can be in a number of resolutions such as 800 x 600, 1024 x 768 or 1280 x The greater the resolution and the more colors the card displays.
5 What is HardwareWhen you think about a computer, you probably picture its hardware. Hardware is the computer’s Physical parts. You use hardware devices such as a keyboard or mouse to input data. The processor CPU is a hardware device that turns the raw data into usable information. Hardware devices such as a monitor or a disk drive show output and store data for later access.
6 What is HardwareInside the Case Much of a computer’s hardware is found inside the computer case are as it is sometimes called the (System Unit), hidden from view. Most of this hardware is used for processing and storing data.
7 What is HardwareProcessing Devices Perhaps the most important piece of hardware in a computer is the Central Processing Unit or (CPU). The CPU is known as the “Brain” of the computer. This is the device that processes data. The CPU is a small, thin piece of silicon attached to a circuit board. The CPU is covered with tiny electrical circuits. By moving data along these circuits in specific ways, the CPU can do arithmetic and compare data very quickly
8 What is HardwarePrimary Storage Some hardware used to store data is inside the computer case near the CPU. The computer uses Random Access Memory, or RAM, to store data and instructions while the computer is working. In this way, the CPU can quickly find the data it works with. This type of storage is called primary storage. Data stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off. Therefore RAM is volatile.
9 What is Hardware Secondary Storage Devices Other pieces of storage hardware aresecondary storage. The following devices letyou store data permanently – even when thecomputer is turned off.Hard drives use a stack of disk platters tostore large amounts of informationpermanently on the computer. External harddrives, which are plugged into the computer,are used to store back-ups of your data.
10 What is Hardware Secondary Storage Devices They can be desktop or portable devices andusually connects to the computer via aUniversal Serial Bus or USB, port.Flash, Jump, Thumb, or Pen Drives – allnames for the same kind of storage devicethat connect to the computer through a USBport. They hold anywhere from 4 gigabytesto as many as 128 gigabytes or more.
11 What is Hardware Secondary Storage Devices Compact Disc (CD) and Digital VideoDiscs (DVDs) are optical storage devices.You insert the CD or DVD into yourcomputer through the disc drive.“Cloud” storage is online storage offeredon various Web sites. Most of them will giveyou a few gigabytes for free, but then requireyou to pay for more space.
12 What is HardwareSecondary Storage Capacity Hard disk drives hold the most data. Many computers now have hard drives that can store between 1 to 2 Terabytes. A Megabyte is just over a Million bytes. A Gigabyte is just over a Billion bytes. So a Terabyte is over a Zillion bytes. Thumb and flash drives hold the next largest amount of data. CDs and DVDs hold the least amount of data – from 700 Megabytes to almost 10 Gigabytes.
13 PeripheralsHardware that is separate but can be connected to the case is called a peripheral. Not all computers have all this equipment as peripherals. Apple’s iMac computers include that monitor as a physical part of the main system. A Peripheral is anything that you can plug into the computer and use its resources. Example: Keyboard, Mouse, Monitors, Printers, Xbox 360, Wii, IPOD, IPAD.
14 PeripheralsCables Peripherals need to be connected to the computer so that data can be moved back and forth. Each peripheral is linked to the computer by a cable with a plug. The plug joins the computer at a connector on the computer case. Anything that you can plug into the computer and use it resources are peripherals. Example: Digital camera or iPhone, iPod, MP3 Player or Gaming Systems.
15 PeripheralsConnectors – There are several main types of connectors, or ports:Serial ports move data one bit at a timeParallel ports move data in groupsMultiple device ports, such as Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) and Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports, connect several peripherals to a computer at one time. They all move data faster than serial ports can.
16 Peripheral / Hardware A Peripheral is anything that you can plug into the computer and use its resources. ExamplesCD ROM DrivePrintersMouseKeyboardMonitorsZip DrivesScannersModemsHeadphonesWebcamsDigital Cameras
17 What is SoftwareSoftware includes all the programs that tell a computer what to do and how to do it. Think of a computer as a sport team. Hardware is the players, and software is the coach. Types of Software Software is divided into two main types: System software and Application software.
18 Operating System Software System software includes programs that help the computer work properly. There are two types of system software: Operating System and System Utilities. Both help computers run smoothly. The Operating System (OS) lets the hardware devices communicate with one another and keeps them running efficiently. It also supports the hardware when application programs are running.
19 Operating System Software The two most widely used operating systems are the Macintosh OS (Mac X) and Microsoft Windows (2008). System Utilities Programs that help the computer work properly are called Utility Software. They usually do maintenance and repair jobs that the operating system cannot do itself. They repair damaged files or save files.
20 Application Software There are many different applications. They can be grouped into four main categories:Productivity software helps people bemore productive at work.Graphics software makes it possible todraw, paint, and touch up photos.Communication software allowscomputers to connect to the Internet and to send .Home, education, and entertainmentsoftware helps people manage their money.
21 Application SoftwareYou are probably more familiar with Application software, which are programs designed to help you do tasks such as writing a paper or making a graph. Examples of Application software are: MS Word, MS PowerPoint, MS EXCEL, Garage Band, iMovie, Comic Life, Pages, or Keynote. This type of software also includes program that allow you to use the computer to listen to music or play games.
22 Application SoftwareCustom Software There are two ways to obtain application software. Some organizations need software programs to do very specific jobs. They hire People (Software Programmers) to write custom software designed to do those jobs. Because these programs are custom written, and they are usually quite expensive.
23 Application SoftwareOff-the-Shelf Software Most people use software to do standard jobs. They might want to write letters or keep track of their CD collection. They can choose from many ready-made programs to handle these common tasks. These are called “off-the-shelf” programs because stores and companies that sell software from the Internet stock them. Because software publishers can sell many copies of this software, it is less expensive than custom software.