Presentation on theme: "World War and Republican France The second phase of the French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
World War and Republican France The second phase of the French Revolution
A New Constitution and New Fears October 1791 Nat. Assembly was disbanded and the new Legislative Assembly was convened with no carryover –A less cautious group –Comprised of members of the “Jacobin” clubs Pressured by Marie Antoinette, Louis XVI planned the families escape to the Austrian Netherlands –On the evening of June 20, 1791 they left Paris in disguise. They were recognized near the border and returned to Paris (impact?)
World war On April 20 th 1792 the new Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria in an attempt to strike at conservatism and despotism –At the outset the war goes badly and Prussia joins Austria –In this atmosphere a wave of patriotic fever swept across the country
The second revolution Defeats on the battlefield and economic problems at home led to radical changes –July 1792: Sans-Culottes combined with radical Jacobins (Georges Danton and Maximillian Robespierre) known as the Mountain to complete the “second revolution” August 1792: the King and his family under house arrest –September 21 st 1792 France is declared a Republic
Republican France The National Convention draws up the new Republican Constitution September 21 st 1792 Jacobins split over Louis fate –The Girondins more moderate –The Mountain call for the kings death (Robespierre) –The Mountain wins and on January 21, 1793 Louis XVI put to death for treason by one vote (Marie unanimous) Robespierre Danton
The course of the war By Sept. 1792 the war was going better for France and they invaded into the German states –However in February 1793 Great Britain and Spain became more involved against France Why?
Timeline 1792/1793 1792 April 20 JulyAugust September 21 st 1793JanuaryFebruaryJune
The Committee of Public Safety June 2, 1793 the Mountain seized power by arresting 31 Girondists The Committee of Public Safety formed to deal with the emergency of war (resistance outside Paris) Will execute between 30,000 and 40,000 in one year
New ideals The promises of the Declaration of the Rights of Man were forgotten. Terror was the order of the day. In the words of Maximilian Robespierre, "Softness to traitors will destroy us all” If the spring of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the springs of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible...
Total war France was now able to harness the power of terror, a planned economy and nationalism in a total war effort (emergency socialism) –France implemented a draft of all unmarried men –14 armies of over 1 million soldiers
The Thermidorian reaction While the army became more successful the Committee of Public Safety became more strict People were now less willing to accept the dictatorship of the Committee –March 1794 they begin to execute many of their own (Danton in April) –On 9 Thermidor (July 27 th ) Robespierre was shouted down and executed the following day –The revolution was back in the hands of the middle class
The Directory Middle class government that ended price controls (conditions for the poor get worse) New constitution was deigned to protect the political and economic superiority of the middle class –The population voted for electors (men of means) who would then select members of a legislative assembly. The assembly then chose a 5 man board to serve as the executive branch –Eventually becomes a weak dictatorship