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Rise of Mussolini Ms. Garratt

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Presentation on theme: "Rise of Mussolini Ms. Garratt"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rise of Mussolini Ms. Garratt
Fascism In Italy Rise of Mussolini Ms. Garratt

2 Post WWI Problems Italian nat’lists felt betrayed by Paris peace treaties. Yugoslavia Veterans returned to econ & pol chaos Strikes Unemployment Conflict between workers & industry Feuding political factions Mussolini responds to these problems by creating the Fascist party Upper class was very nervous – Musso got grass roots support as well as from the upper classes who feared Communism and Socialism

3 What is Fascism? Extreme form of aggressive nationalism
Race used to justify aggression & Social Darwinism. Individuals subservient to the state - strict obedience demanded Children were indoctrinated Anti-communist Anti-democratic

4 Fascism was Totalitarian
(1) Single party dictatorship. (2) State controlled economy. (3) Use of spies & state terrorism. (4) Strict censorship & control of the media. (5) Use of schools & media to indoctrinate & mobilize citizens. (6) Civil rights are sacrificed for strict obedience to the state. (7) War & militarism are glorified

5 Single-Party Dictatorship
Organized the Fascist party 1919 Mussolini was its dictator Spoke of reviving Roman glory Result(s)?

6 Use of Secret Police & Terror
Organized “black shirts” (combat gangs) Used violence & terror against political opponents such as communists and socialists. Results?

7 Black Shirts – Pre 1922

8 Black Shirts 1922

9 Mussolini’s Black Shirts After 1922

10 Fascist Indoctrination
Citizens bombarded with slogans glorifying the state & Musso. “Believe, obey, fight” were blasted from loudspeakers. “A minute on the battlefield is worth a lifetime of peace” was the fascist position. RESULTS?

11 Indoctrination – Youth Groups

12 Female Fascist Youth Group

13 Corporate State: Economic Policy
Economy under state control. Preserved capitalism but state directed econ policy The economy improved HOWEVER, came at labor’s expense as strikes outlawed & wages dropped. ANTI- Communist RESULTS?

14 Race & Social Darwinism
Revive ancient glory of Rome Aggressive Social Darwinist approach to world affairs Will justify foreign aggression and pact with Hitler. RESULTS?

15 Rome-Berlin Axis Alliance between Germany & Italy
Both pursue very aggressive military policies Both justify action on social Darwinism. Hitler will have to bail out Mussolini out militarily often

16 Interpret this cartoon

17 What is fascism?

18 Catholic Church Supports Mussolini

19 Mussolini & Totalitarianism
Musso built the 1st totalitarian state which was never as extreme as Germany’s or Soviet Unions. What was its appeal? Promised strong, stable gov & to end political & econ paralysis that came with democracy. Revived national pride. Promised to restore the former glory of the Roman Empire Projected sense of power during times of despair & disorder

20 Similarities of Communism & Fascism
Both flourished during difficult economic times. Both promoted extreme programs of social change. Both had totalitarian governments to bring about a social revolution. Both were dictatorships. The USSR, Italy, & Germany were all totalitarian regimes.

21 Differences Fascism & Communism
Communism sought to: Destroy capitalism Promote world revolution through COMINTERN End class conflict. Race not important Fascism sought to: 1. Maintain capitalism but destroy communism 2. Engage in foreign aggression based on Social Darwinism 3. Preserve class differences 4. Race extremely important

22 Three Ideologies Three ideologies vied for power during the postwar years. Democracy in Brit & Fr was challenged by difficult economic challenges & labor. Communism in USSR – attractive to some workers but seen as a threat to capitalist govs Fascism in Germ & Italy attractive for its appeal to national unity & patriotism. As the Great Depression deepens fascist ideology will become more attractive.

23 Karma


25 Pair Activity Scrapbook Assignment
Create a newspaper editorial (propaganda) that glorifies Mussolini and fascism. This editorial would have to pass the fascist censors Reference all of the following: The economy National pride Political stability

26 March on Rome 1922 Demands change in gov King ( V.E. II) succumbs
Allows him to become the prime minister


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