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I. Fascism in Italy A. Rise of Mussolini

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1 I. Fascism in Italy A. Rise of Mussolini
Postwar Italy faced disorder, unemployment, declining trade, rising taxes, and an inefficient government. 1. In 1919, Benito Mussolini organized veterans and other discontented Italians into the Fascist Party. 2. Mussolini organized his supporters into gangs called “Black Shirts” who achieved his aims through violence.

2 B. Mussolini’s Italy After Mussolini seized power, Italy became a dictatorship in which criticism and free speech were NOT tolerated. 1. To encourage economic growth and end conflicts between owners and workers, Mussolini brought the economy under state control. 2. Under fascism, men, women, and children were constantly commanded to make sacrifices for the nation and to forget their individual desires. 3. Italy’s youth were taught to obey strict military discipline and to glorify Mussolini.

3 C. What is Fascism? In the 1920s and the 1930s, fascism was rooted in extreme nationalism, glorified violence and blind loyalty to the state, was antidemocratic, and pursued aggressive foreign expansion.

4 6. While both fascism and communism were characterized by their appeal during economic hard times and by dictators who imposed totalitarian gov’t, these two ideologies pursued different goals and found support among different groups.

5 7. Fascism appealed to many Italians because it promised a strong, stable government, an awakening of national pride, and a sense of confidence in a time of disorder. 8. Three systems of government competed for influence in postwar Europe: democracy in Britain and France; communism in Russia; and fascism in Italy.

6 Reviewing Key Terms & People
Fascist party: party organized in 1919 by Benito Mussolini. Black Shirts: supporters of Mussolini – organized into gangs – achieved aims through violence Il Duce: name that Mussolini gave himself after seizing power – means “The Leader.” Corporate State: type of government in which representatives of business, labor, government, and the Fascist Party controlled the economy

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