Presentation on theme: "Section 3 Chp. 17 Fascism in Italy"— Presentation transcript:
1Section 3 Chp. 17 Fascism in Italy How did conditions in Italy favor the rise of Mussolini?How did Mussolini reshape Italy?What were the values and goals of fascist ideology?
2Setting the Scene“I hated politics and politicians,” said Italo Balbo. Like many Italian veterans of World War I , he had come home to a land of economic chaos and political corruption. Italy’s constitutional government, he felt “had betrayed the hopes of soldiers, reducing Italy to a shameful peace.” Disgusted and angry, Balbo rallied behind a fierce nationalist, Benito MussoliniMussolini’s rise to power in the 1920’s served as a model for ambitious strongmen elsewhere in Europe
3Rise of MussoliniItalians were upset after the Peace of Paris, they had been promised land to join the allies and now that land became the country of YugoslaviaPeasants seized land, workers went on strike or seized factories, the country was in chaosVeterans had no jobs after defending their country at warTrade declined and taxes roseThe government broke into factions, small groups, and was unable to come to any agreement on how to solve the problems.
4A Leader EmergesBenito Mussolini who was the son of a socialist blacksmith and a teacher had been a socialist him self but rejected those beliefs for intense nationalism, he became the new voice of the ItaliansHe organized the Fascist party in 1919, made up of veterans and discontented citizensFascist comes from the Latin word fasces or a bundle of sticks wrapped around an ax, a symbol of authority in ancient Rome.A fiery speaker he promised to end corruption and replace turmoil with orderSpoke of reviving Roman greatness pledging to turn the Mediterranean into a “Roman Lake” once again
5Seizing PowerMussolini’s supporters were called Black Shirts they were organized into “combat squads” which broke up socialist rallies, smashed leftist presses, and attacked farmers’ cooperativesBy intimidation and terror these gangs ousted officials in Northern ItalyMost citizens accepted these thug groups because they had lost all faith in the governmentIn 1922 at a rally in Naples the Fascists called for a “March on Rome” to demand changes, 10’s of thousands answered the call and King Victor Emmanuel III fearing Civil War asked Mussolini to form a new governmentBenito Mussolini becomes Prime MinisterWithout a shot fired Mussolini had achieved an appointment from the king and went around any constitution the country currently had
6Mussolini’s ItalyBy 1925 Mussolini had taken the title of IL DUCE “the leader”He suppressed rival political partiesCensored the pressRigged ElectionsReplaced elected officials with FascistsItaly supposedly remained a constitutional monarchy but it was really a dictatorship controlled by terrorCritics were thrown in jail, forced into exile, or even murderedSecret police and propaganda strengthened the hold Mussolini had on Italy
7Mussolini’s Italy POLITICAL STRUCTURE ECONOMIC POLICY SOCIAL POLICIES By 1925, Mussolini had assumed the title Il Duce, “The Leader.”In theory, Italy remained a parliamentary monarchy. In fact, it became a dictatorship upheld by terror.The Fascists relied on secret police and propaganda.Mussolini brought the economy under state control.Unlike socialists, Mussolini preserved capitalism.Workers received poor wages and were forbidden to strike.The individual was unimportant except as a member of the state.Men were urged to be ruthless warriors.Women were called on to produce more children.Fascist youth groups toughened children and taught them to obey strict military discipline.
8What Is Fascism?In the 1920s and 1930s, fascism meant different things in different countries. All forms of fascism, however, shared some basic features:extreme nationalismglorification of action, violence, discipline, and, above all, blind loyalty to the staterejection of Enlightenment faith in reason and the concepts of equality and libertyrejection of democratic ideasBelieved democracy led to corruption and weaknessEmphasized emotion and the need to the citizen to serve the statepursuit of aggressive foreign expansionglorification of warfare as a necessary and noble struggle for survival
9Compared to CommunismFascists were sworn enemies of socialists and communistsCommunists wanted internal changes, Fascists wanted more land and a stronger homelandCommunists were supported by the working class and poor Fascists by the rich and middle classSimilarities between the two groups were the idea of new social programs, Dictators imposed totalitarian governments, and in both the leaders claimed to rule out of national interests
10Totalitarian RuleItaly was the first Totalitarian state, which became a model for other states, even though rule by Mussolini was not as absolute or as brutal as by Stalin in the USSR and Hitler in GermanyThere were 6 basic features of totalitarian ruleSingle party dictatorshipState control of economyUse of police spies and terror to enforce rulesStrict censorship of mediaUse of schools and media to indoctrinate and mobilize citizensUnquestioning obedience to a single leader
11Appeal Why did FASCISM appeal to Italians? It promised a strong, stable governmentAn end to political feudingRevival of National prideMussolini showed power and confidence in a time of disorder and despairAt first IL DUCE was respected by foreign countries “he got the trains running of time” made chaos into an ordered, disciplined societyAfter Mussolini started to call for military action, and the increasing of the size of Italy, world powers saw Mussolini for what he was!!!!
12Looking AheadAfter World War I three systems of government competed for influence in EuropeDemocracy like in Britain and FranceCommunism in RussiaFascism in ItalyFascism with its chest-pumping calls for action, national unity, and dedication to the state ignited patriotic feelings, as the Great Depression spread other nations looked to leaders that preached fascism