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Chapter 2 Theoretical Explanations of Delinquency.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Theoretical Explanations of Delinquency."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Theoretical Explanations of Delinquency

2 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Schools of Thought 1. Classical School of Thought 2. Positivist School of Thought

3 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Classical School of Thought Human beings are rational and are capable of free-will Cost-benefit analysis Individuals are self-serving Punish the offense rather than the offender

4 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Positivist School of Thought Look for multiple factors to explain crime Punish offenders rather than the offense 3 Explanations: 1) Biological 2) Sociological 3) Psychological

5 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Positivist Explanations 1) Biological 2) Sociological 3) Psychological

6 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Biological Explanations Seeks to explain crime on the basis of form follows function Caesar Lombroso (1876)considered Father of Criminology Criminals are evolutionary throwbacks Stigmata 3 Groups of Criminals 1. Born Criminal 2. Insane Criminal 3. Criminaloid

7 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Biological Explanations, contd. William Sheldon (1949) Somatyping 3 Body Types 1. Endomorphs 2. Ectomorphs 3. Mesomorphs

8 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Biological Explanations, contd. Feeblemindedness and crime began to be used. Increased use of IQ testing was begun. Recent research suggests that IQ may be linked to delinquency.

9 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Biological Explanations, contd. Twin Studies Assessed delinquency patterns of twins separated at birth 60-70% of identical twins had similar delinquency patterns 15-30% of fraternal twins had similar delinquency patterns

10 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Biological Explanations, contd. Other Biological Explanations XYY Chromosomal Patterns Delivery Complications Frontal Lobe Dysfunction Reduced Spinal Fluid Levels Reduced Levels of Autonomic Reactiveness and Poor Conditioning of Autonomic Responses Nutrition

11 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Psychological Explanations Based on the Medical Model Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytic Explanations Understand the relationship between personality and crime 3 Distinct elements of personality 1. Id 2. Ego 3. Superego

12 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Psychological Explanations, contd. Yochelson and Samenow (1977) Cognitive Based Theories Identified 52 Thinking Errors

13 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Sociological Explanations Look to the environment for explanations of crime 6 Theoretical Explanations 1) Anomie Theory 2) Anomie/Strain Theory 3) Labeling Theory 4) Social Bonding/Control Theory 5) Differential Association 6) Developmental Perspectives

14 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Anomie Theory Emile DurkeimFather of Sociology Argued that crime is normal Normlessness/Anomie

15 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Mertonian Anomie/Strain Robert Merton Crime occurs when there is a disjuncture between societally-approved goals and means to achieve those goals. Humans develop 5 Modes of Adaptation when they are unable to meet both the goals and means.

16 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Modes of Adaptation 1) Conformity 2) Innovation 3) Ritualism 4) Retreatism 5) Rebellion

17 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Labeling Theory The theory holds that if one is part of a group that is deemed undesirable, then regardless of the honesty or goodness of one or several of the members, all can be labeled with the same stigmatizing tag.

18 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Edwin Lemert (1952) The act of being labeled does not occur with one label. 2 Forms of Deviation 1. Primary Deviance 2. Secondary Deviance

19 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Social Bonding/Control Theory Travis Hirschi (1969) Juveniles become free to commit delinquent acts when their ties to the conventional social order are severed. There are 4 dimensions which bond an individual to society. The stronger the bonds, the less likely crime/delinquency will occur.

20 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Social Bonds/Dimensions 1) Attachment 2) Commitment 3) Involvement 4) Belief

21 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Differential Association Edwin Sutherland His theory posits that delinquent values are transmitted from one person to another or from one group to another. Sutherland put forth 9 Propositions

22 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Perspective This perspective addresses the existence and persistence of delinquent behavior over the life course Pittsburgh Youth Study Identified 3 major pathways to identifying chronic & serious delinquency

23 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Pathways to Crime 1) Overt Pathway 2) Covert Pathway 3) Authority Conflict Pathway Difference between persisters and experimenters

24 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Distinct Characteristics of Prevention and Treatment Programs 1) Early Intervention 2) Comprehensive Interventions 3) Long-term Interventions

25 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Areas That Need to Be Addressed by a Comprehensive Program 1) Programs should address the multiple risk factors of youth. 2) Chronic offenders appear to have co- occurring problem behaviors, therefore, programs should address multiple problems. 3) Programs must address protective factors.

26 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Drugs and Crime The issue of drugs and crime permeates the criminal justice system. The Drug Use Forecasting Program (1996) indicated that 79% of all arrestees showed a positive for any drug. In % of all juvenile offenses were for a drug-related offense. In 2002 ADAM found that 60% of male and 45.9% of female juvenile detainees tested positive for drugs.

27 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Connection Between Drugs & Crime According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics the following report committing crimes for drugs: 10% of federal prisoners 17% of state prisoners 13% all convicted jail inmates

28 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/Barton Prentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Implications for Tax Dollars It is important to understand the connection between theory and delinquency. We must understand programs that work to diminish the possibility of investing in programs that dont work.


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