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Lecture 8 UN Professor O’Malley

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1 Lecture 8 UN Professor O’Malley
Peacekeeping Lecture 8 UN Professor O’Malley

2 In the beginning… Peacekeeping was limited in scope – observers or military personnel to help end hostilities between states Needed permission of both sides Only military forces from small, neutral states (no permanent SC members could contribute) Supervised by the Sec.Gen. or his designee Arrived after the sides had negotiated a settlement Supervise and verify the truce (did not take sides) Only light weapons for defense allowed Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) necessary from the host state for UN to stay Difficulty was finance and reimbursing countries

3 Cold War Peacekeeping Missions
UNTSO – UN Truce Supervision Organization (1948-Present) UNMOGIP – UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (1949-Present) Showed early peacekeeping efforts couldn’t halt warfare (hostilities in 1965 and 1971) On the Jammu-Kashmir line Mission page Mission page

4 Cold War Peacekeeping Missions
ONUC – UN Operation in the Congo ( ) Hammarskjold invokes Art. 99 Hammarskjold announces: Investigate assassination of Lumumba Protect civilians Prevent clashes between armed units Reorganize the army Remove Belgians from Katanga Sec.Coucil allows detention of mercenaries and confiscation of their weapons UN inserted themselves in a civil conflict and took sides (the government side) Considered a failure and very expensive Mission page

5 Cold War Peacekeeping Missions
UNFICYP – UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (1964-Present) Cyprus separated between Greek and Turkish Cypriots Force drew a line between the groups through the island Contributed to the permanent separation of island (?) Annan Plan of 2003 failed to pass referendum Has added humanitarian and police functions through the years Financial difficulties have caused some nations to withdraw Moved from peacekeeping to peacemaking Mission page

6 Cold War Peacekeeping Missions
UNDOF – UN Disengagement Observer Force (1974-Present) In Golan Heights, between Israel and Syria Permanently manned installations Turn back incursions, mine clearing, inspect ‘areas of limitation’ UNIFIL – UN Interim Force in Lebanon (1978-Present) Restoration of peace and security in the area and assistance to Lebanese gov’t to restore authority in south Israeli invasion of 1982 (withdraw in 2000) Lebanon refuses to take responsibility of the south with no peace agreement with Israel Mission page Mission page

7 Second-Generation Peacekeeping
Post-Cold War – robust peacekeeping Only 13 operations pre-1988; missions were undertaken UN Offices Necessary DPKO (Department of Peacekeeping Operations) Created 1992 Administrative, managerial, planning and preparation duties for all missions Training and Evaluation Office – offers standardized training for all peacekeeping units PBPU (Peacekeeping Best Practice Unit) – Lessons Learned and Policy and Analysis Unit were merged to create this unit dedicated to improved performance

8 Early UN Nation-Building Efforts
New conflicts mostly internal to states (outside UN’s original scope Art.2, para.7 – sovereignty cannot prejudice UN action National sovereignty under attack (?) Hard to get approval from all sides (usually rebel groups) Protection of civilians and refugees is not staying neutral New conflicts require complex coordination with NGOs and specialized agencies Often lengthy deployments with police officers, legal officials, economic advisors and humanitarian workers

9 Early Cases of Nation-Building
Namibia UNTAG (April 1989 – March 1990) – UN Transition Assistance Group 1500 police monitors, 2000 civilian administrators, 4650 military personnel Educated and registered voters, oversaw elections, repatriated refugees and confirmed troops confined to bases Cost $368 million Highly successful Mission page

10 Early Cases of Nation-Building
Angola ( ) UN Angola Verification Missions I – military observer group to verify Cubans left Angola (highly traditional and successful) II – verify implementation of Namibian agreements and extended to electoral observation III – 7000 military personnel to help reconciliation between government and rebel group UNITA MONUA (UN Observer Mission in Angola) – June 1997 to February 1999 Couldn’t bring peace Cost $1.5 billion and 60 lives of UN personnel Mission page Mission page

11 Early Cases of Nation-Building
Cambodia UNTAC (UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) Managed daily administration of Cambodia’s foreign and defense policy Provided domestic government services Stationed more than 20,000 UN personnel in the country Observed elections in 1993 After departure, special representative to assist in promotion of human rights, strengthening of civil society and building democratic and legal structures 1997 Hun Sen coup 1998 UN observes elections and continues technical assistance Seems like somewhat of a success today Mission page

12 Later 2nd Gen. Case Studies
After Cold War, veto paralysis of Sec. Council gone, but P5 self-interest intact Moderate successes in Namibia and Cambodia give way to failures of Yugoslavia, Somalia and Rwanda Brahimi Report prepared at request of Annan (Mar-Aug 2000)

13 Brahimi Report Recommendations
Nearly sixty proposals: Each mission gets an integrated task force of political analysis, military operations, civilian police, electoral assistance, aid to refugees, finance, logistics, public information and streamlined procurement Definition of self-defense stretched to accommodate offensive necessities ‘Impartiality’ should not lead to agreements with ‘evil’ Credibility relies on distinguishing victim from aggressor Reform of UNSAS (Standby Arrangement System) to get deployment in 30 days

14 UN Outsourcing UN continues to contract work out
After US invasion of Afghanistan, UNAMA (UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan) established Tacit approval of US war ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) under NATO leadership UN supported ECOWAS intervention in Liberia and Sierra Leone and Cote d’Ivoire In Cote d’Ivoire established UNOCI to do DDR (disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation) UN does open political support offices in areas it thinks will have trouble (ex: UNPOB)

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