5How is a piece of writing marked? General Impression markContentOrganizationCohesionRange of structures and vocabularyRegister and formatTarget reader
6Pass or fail?Although the writer does not always choose the most natural word, his meaning is always clear.PASSThe candidate makes some errors of vocabulary and spelling, there are also a couple of examples of the verb not agreeing with its subject and of the wrong choice of preposition… the content is relevant and all aspects of the task are addressed.
7What makes a piece of writing fail? Would only be partially informed…Inappropriate informality…Target reader would not be informed…Weak introduction and conclusion…
8Creating a good effect on the target reader means Completing the taskUsing the correct formatUsing the right kind of languageNot making mistakes that confuse the reader
9Reports and Proposals A PROPOSAL …persuade the reader of a course of action. A proposal should be clearly organized and may include headings.In a PROPOSAL you will probably need toGive reasonsMake polite recommendationsPersuadeCompare ideas
10ReportA REPORTgive some factual information and make suggestions or recommendations. A report should be clearly organized and may include headings.In a REPORT you will probably need toSummarize informationMake suggestionsMake recommendations
11Tips Use headings Avoid informal language Give examples or explanations but don’t go too far off the point
12ARTICLES You read a report or proposal because you have to You read an article because you want toArticles need to ENGAGE and INTEREST
13Making your article engaging and interesting Check who you are writing for an why you are writingHave a clear idea of your audienceUse opportunities for description and narrationUse of adjectivesQuestions (Why should you visit this modern city?, rather then Visit this city because…)Expressions/proverbs
14TIPS Aim for 3 paragraphs Think carefully about your reader when choosing a style/registerUse a 1st person form if possible
15ESSAYSUnlike articles, essays are not written to engage but to present clear, well-organized ideas.Your essay is probably written for your tutorYou may be asked to present balanced or one-sided argumentsAn important SET BOOK task
16TIPS Be sure to write an introduction and conclusion Use examples to support your ideasIf your writing is one-sided, don’t contradict yourself!Connect your ideas with linking words and back-reference words/expressions
17REVIEW usually written for an English-language magazine, newspaper or websiteDescriptionExplanationRecommendation
18TIPS Write a 3 or 4 paragraph piece with introduction and conclusion Avoid exaggeration – enthuse, criticize and recommend but in a balanced wayA strong first paragraph will get your readers attention
19Letters Respond to the situation outlined Must be appropriate for the specified target readeropening salutation, clear paragraphing and closing phrasing are always important.
20TipsLetters often include personal aspects that mean you can use narrative/description – these make your writing more interesting.If the letter is for informational/factual purposes check you give clear informationKeep your register (more or less formal) consistent