Presentation on theme: "1 Small group teaching. 10/10/20142 2 What is a small group: Small groups are not determined by number, but by certain characteristics: – Active student."— Presentation transcript:
10/10/20142 2 What is a small group: Small groups are not determined by number, but by certain characteristics: – Active student participation – Student interaction – Group work on a specific task – Reflection on a completed task
10/10/20143 3 Why small group learning is important: they need to be able to: – Work in teams – Listen to others’ ideas and build upon them – Think creatively – Collaborate – Manage time and processes effectively – Develop o Interpersonal skills o Communication skills o Social team working skills o Presentation skills
10/10/20144 4 Methods of small group teaching Workshops Build a case method Clinical skills sessions Seminar paper Communication skills sessions Problem-based learning tutorials Case studies and simulations Clinical teaching sessions –Ward-based –Ambulatory care –Community-based
10/10/20145 5 Principles of small group teaching key principles have been identified which can help teachers provide experiences that foster ‘deep’ learning and lifelong learning, rather than ‘rote’ learning leading to simple memorization of facts.
10/10/20146 6 Principles of small group teaching Deep learning is necessary for clinical learning as factual recall alone does not promote better patient care. Rational thinking, clinical reasoning and problem solving are essential for clinicians to synthesize aspects of patients’ history and exam, formulate differential diagnoses and make management plans.
10/10/20147 7 The FAIR principles Feedback: Teachers should give constructive, timely, specific and frequent feedback. This helps learners to assess their knowledge, skills and attitudes and motivates them to correct deficiencies.
10/10/20148 8 The FAIR principles Activities: Encourage learners to engage in active rather than passive learning. Examples of activities are described under small group teaching techniques.
10/10/20149 9 The FAIR principles Individualization: Since learning styles and needs vary among learners, individualizing allows the teaching to be learner-centered.
10/10/201410 The FAIR principles Relevance: Facts and information are more likely to be retained if applicable to patient care, focused on diseases that they see frequently.
10/10/201411 TIPS AND TOOLS FOR TEACHERS FIRST DAY: At the beginning of a course, most of the team are strangers to one another. A good first encounter with sufficient orientation helps set the stage for smooth group work for the remainder of the sessions.
10/10/201412 TIPS AND TOOLS FOR TEACHERS FIRST DAY: A learning environment needs to be established where everyone respects the others, questions can be asked freely and everyone including the teacher is willing to admit errors and their own limitations. Goals of the teacher and the learners need to be communicated to each other, some negotiation needs to be carried out
10/10/201413 REST ON YOUR FIRST DAY! Rapport- introductions, orientation, ice- breakers can be used Expectations- of the learners and the teacher need to be stated explicitly Structure- of the teaching and the clinical work should be decided upon Task- group tasks to be set with provision for timely feedback
10/10/201414 ONGOING SESSIONS: Tutor roles Facilitators have the following functions in 2 major domains; ensuring that the group task is completed and the group functions are maintained: 1.Task functions 2. Group maintenance functions
10/10/201415 Task functions: 1. Opening discussion 2. Planning group work 3. Giving information and opinions 4. Asking for information and opinions 5. Putting ideas together 6. Diagnosing difficulties in group progress 7. Checking that group members are sharing in progress 8. Summarizing 9. Questioning unclear or false contributions
10/10/201416 Group maintenance functions: 1. Listening 2. Encouraging participation 3. Relieving tension and conflict 4. Ensuring clarity in discussions 5. Commenting on group process 6. Building trust and rapport between group members 7. Being available
10/10/201417 DURING THE SESSIONS Skills of facilitation important in small group teaching – Preparation – Questioning – Listening – Responding – Explaining – Feedback – Summarizing
10/10/201418 Questioning Types of questions: The questions that teachers ask can be classified into the following dimensions. – Closed-ended and open-ended – Recall- analysis and synthesis- observation – Confused- Clear – Encouraging- threatening
10/10/201419 Tactics of questioning: – Probing- follow up questions to make learners think more deeply. – Prompting- throwing out hints – Pausing- giving learners time to comprehend questions especially difficult ones – Pitching- asking questions at the right level for each learner – Putting- the questions in the right, logical order
10/10/201420 For meaningful, deep learning to occur, tutors need to move towards open-ended, clear, encouraging questions that require comprehension, analysis and synthesis.
10/10/201421 END OF ROTATION – Re-evaluate objectives set at the beginning and see how many have been achieved. – Answer questions that have not been answered during the course. – Have each learner enumerate successful achievement of their objectives. – Provide and receive feedback on group functioning, teaching methods etc.
10/10/201422 Learner roles: Teachers also need to know what to expect from learners in a small group process. Learners have certain responsibilities to contribute to the small group process as well as their own learning and teachers would do well to state these expectations clearly at the outset.
10/10/201423 Learner roles: key learner roles include: – Preparation – Punctuality – Politeness – Participation – Responsibility for their own learning