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1 Small group teaching2. 10/10/20142 2 Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 1. Brainstorming: Everyone should be encouraged.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Small group teaching2. 10/10/20142 2 Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 1. Brainstorming: Everyone should be encouraged."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Small group teaching2

2 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 1. Brainstorming: Everyone should be encouraged to contribute at the level they feel comfortable. Ideas should be noted without positive or negative comment. Participants should be encouraged to build on each others’ ideas. Once all ideas have been noted, the group should be asked to prioritize.

3 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 2. Buzz groups: With larger groups a break is often needed and buzz groups can be used: To provide a stimulating change in the locus of attention For you to gain some idea of what the students know For the students to check their own understanding.

4 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 2. Buzz groups:

5 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 3. Snowballing : Snowball groups (or pyramids) are an extension of buzz groups. Pairs join up to form fours, then fours to eights. These groups of eight report back to the whole group.

6 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion This developing pattern of group interaction can ensure comprehensive participation, especially when it starts with individuals writing down their ideas before sharing them. To avoid students becoming bored with repeated discussion of the same points, it is a good idea to use increasingly sophisticated tasks as the groups gets larger

7 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 4. Fish bowl :the usual fishbowl configuration has an inner group discussing an issue or topic while the outer group listens, looking for themes, patterns, or soundness of argument or uses a group behavior checklist to give feedback to the group on its functioning. The roles may then be reversed.

8 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 4. Fish bowl :

9 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 5. Crossover groups : Students are divided into subgroups that are subsequently split up to form new groups in such a way as to maximise the crossing over of information. A colour or number coding in the first groupings enables a simple relocation from, for example, three groups of four students to four groups of three, with each group in the second configuration having one from each of the first.

10 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 5. Crossover groups :

11 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 6. Circular questioning : In circular questioning each member of the group asks a question in turn. In its simplest version, one group member formulates a question relevant to the theme or problem and puts it to the person opposite, who has a specified time (say, one or two minutes) to answer it.

12 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 6. Follow up questions can be asked if time permits. The questioning and answering continues clockwise round the group until everyone has contributed, at which time a review of questions and answers can take place. This could also include answers that others would like to have given. Alternatively, you or the students could prepare the questions on cards. You could also mix the best of the students' questions with some of your own.

13 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 6. Circular questioning :

14 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 7. Horseshoe groups : This method allows you to alternate between the lecture and discussion formats, a common practice in workshops. Groups are arranged around tables, with each group in a horseshoe formation with the open end facing the front.

15 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 7. Horseshoe groups :

16 10/10/ Summary of techniques for effective facilitation in group discussion 7. Group round : Each person has a brief time say 20 seconds or one minute to say something in turn round the group. The direction round the group can be decided by the first contributor, or members can speak in a random order. More interest and energy is usually generated, however, if the first person chooses who should go second, the second who should go third, and so on. Group rounds are particularly useful at the beginning of any meeting so that everyone is involved from the start and, depending on what the group is asked to speak about, as a way of checking on learning issues.

17 10/10/ Seating arrangements (Argyle 1983) H H LL LL Tutor dominated Interactions: Tutor student Student tutor H H H LL

18 10/10/ Small Group Arrangements in Large Classes

19 10/10/ Small Group Arrangements in Large Classes

20 10/10/ Small Group Arrangements in Large Classes

21 10/10/ Small Group Arrangements in Large Classes

22 10/10/ Classic Model

23 10/10/ Floating Tutor Model

24 10/10/ Floating Tutor Model

25 10/10/ Peer Tutor Model

26 10/10/ Evaluating small group teaching.

27 10/10/ Evaluating small group teaching Direct observation Interaction analysis Question analysis Leadership discussion

28 10/10/ Rating schedule for Tutor Good group leader _ _ _ _ Fits into the group _ _ _ _ Patient _ _ _ _ Never Sarcastic _ _ _ _ Lively _ _ _ _ Pleasant manner _ _ _ _ Interested in students _ _ _ _ Interested in my ideas _ _ _ _ Treated me with respect _ _ _ _ Encourage me to discuss problem _ _ _ Clearly audible _ _ _ _ Interprets theories and ideas clearly _ _ _ Gets me interested in his subject _ _ _ _ Stresses important material _ _ _ _ Uses good examples and illustrations _ _ Appears confident _ _ _ _ Is up-to-date with knowledge _ _ _ _ Poor group leader Too forceful Impatient sarcastic Monotonous Unpleasant manner Not interested in students Does not treat me with respect Unable to discuss problems Mumbles Leaves me confused Bores me All material seem the same Never gives examples Not confident Not aware of latest developments

29 10/10/ Rating schedule for Tutorial Well organized _ _ _ _ Good progression _ _ _ _ Tutorials are well prepared _ _ _ _ The group enjoys meeting together _ _ Time is well spent _ _ _ _ New material covered _ _ _ _ Blackboard: easy to read _ _ _ _ Overcome difficulties through lecture _ _ Mudded Poor progression Tutorials are not well prepared The group does not enjoys together There are a waste of time Merely repeat lecture materials Blackboard: illegible Difficulties not dealt with

30 10/10/ Rating schedule for student’s response I am fully aware of my progress _ _ _ _ I enjoy contributing _ _ _ _ I look forward to the tutorials _ _ _ _ I have learnt a lot _ _ _ _ My comments have been welcomed _ _ I am more inclined to continue the _ _ subject I seem to be working in the dark I try to say nothing I would prefer not to attend I have learnt nothing My comments have not been sought I have developed an aversion to the subject

31 10/10/ Rating schedule for the whole course Difficult _ _ _ _ Too much material _ _ _ _ Vocationally useful to me _ _ _ _ Interesting _ _ _ _ I will do further study _ _ _ _ Easy Nothing much in it Waste of time Boring I will not pursue it

32 10/10/ Brown’s interaction analysis system LT ST S total QQ Q QQQ QQ / // //// / // // // LT lecture talk ST student talk S silence Q question C correction E explanation S summarizing The lecturer talked for approximately 60% of the time, the student for 30%. The lecturer asked 5 question, the students 3. This small group session is too tutor-dominated // /

33 10/10/ Question analysis TypeLevelQuality Target Style NarrowThought Clear Confused Directed UndirectedEncouraging NeutralThreatening Broad Recall


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