Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution:"— Presentation transcript:
1The American Revolution: 1776-1783 The Early Years
2The Opposing Sides After D of I, war for independence was unavoidable Both sides thought war would be shortBrits thought would crush PatriotsPatriots thought Brits would give up after few lossesFirst glance…Brits overwhelming advantageBest navy in worldExperienced, well-trained armyMuch larger populationBrits: 8+ millionColonists: 2.5 millionWealth of a worldwide empirePatriot DisadvantagesLacked regular armyMost militia (volunteers)No navyLacked experience, guns, and ammoNot all colonists supported the causeSome were neutralSome were LoyalistsLOYALIST LanePATRIOT Parkway
3The Loyalists (or “Tories”) Those who remained loyal to the crownAs many as 20-33% of colonistsSome changed sides during war (whoever was closest)Loyalist strength varied by regionStrongest in the SouthWeakest in NEWhy…Some remained members of Anglican Church (king is leader)Jobs depended on the crownMany feared the disorderSon vs. father, brother vs. brother, family vs. friendsThought problems w/ crown were trivialOthers couldn’t understand what the problem was (communication?)
4African Americans in the War Some blacks sided w/ loyalists too!At beginning Brits promised all enslaved Africans that fought for the crown would become free!Many answered the callIn time some ended up freed in CanadaOthers freed and sent back to AfricaColony of Sierra LeoneWest coast of Africa
5Patriot Advantages Possessed some advantages too! Fought on own groundKnew the terrainIt was theirs!Great determination; personal stake in the resultGreatest advantage was their leader… G-Dub!Few could match his courage, honesty, and determinationBritish disadvantagesBrits mostly hired army, and mercenaries…Hessian MercenariesGerman soldiers for hireThey don’t really care about cause; just moneyForced to fight in far away landForced to ship soldiers and supplies 1,000’s of miles
6Raising an ArmyThese new Americans used liberty and freedom as basis of argument to throw off EnglandResult…Unwilling to grant full power to CongressMakes it difficult to enlist soldiers and raise money for war effortMilitia played important role but…Still huge need for well trained army who could fight anywhereStates had to recruitAt first…Soldiers signed 1-year contractsWashington appealed for longer termsSome did sign longer, but most signed 1-year contractsWhy problem… constantly have to retrainSome women even foughtMargaret Corbin of PAWent w/ husband when he signed upWhen he died, she took his placeMary Ludwig Hayes McCauley also went w/ husbandSoldiers called her “Molly Pitcher” b/c she would bring pitchers of water to the battleDeborah Sampson disguised herself as a man and enlisted
7Fighting in New York Most early battles involved few troops Bunker HillBrits- 2,200 menPatriots- 1,200 menBrits knew need more troops to win quicklyDuring summer of 1776Brits sent 32,000 troops across to NYBritish commander General William HoweHoped sheer size would scare Patriots enough to winSadly mistaken
8Defeat on Long IslandAlthough Washington and Patriots had fewer than 20,000 menDetermined to fightAug Battle of Long IslandOutnumbered and outmaneuvered Patriots suffer serious defeatAlthough Patriots brave…Very few suppliesMany without socks, shoes, coats, and blanketsTough in NY autumn, worse in NY winterNathan Hale-Becomes hero of Long IslandFormer-teacher from CTVolunteers to spy on Brits as Dutch schoolteacherBrits discover him; sentenced to deathLast Words…“I regret that I have, but one life to lose for my country!!!”
9A Low Point After loss at Long Island By winter of 1776- G-Dub retreats to ManhattanBy late-Nov. retreat across NJ then into PABy winter of 1776-Cause near collapseSize of Continental Army shrinking fastSome terms of service up- went homeOthers ran awayW/O new soldiers cause would surely crumble!
10African Americans Join the Fight Patriots GainG-Dub begs Congress to enlist freed menEarly on…South convinces Congress not toMany scared of handing blacks guns!?!Southern states feared revoltsAs need grew, some states ignored banSome fought as early as Concord and Lexington!!!RI raises all-black regiment in 1778By end, every state except SC has black soldiersEstimates of 5,000+ black soldiers for PatriotsFought for same reasons, and same causeSome runaway slaves too, or those fighting in exchange for freedomDon’t know that “all men created equal,” doesn’t mean them!
11American Victories in New Jersey Brits settled in NY for winter of 1776Didn’t fight in winter; at least, did not expect to fightLeft some troops in Trenton & Princeton, NJStationed across the Delaware River from the Brits, G-Dub sees his chance!Christmas night 1776, 2,400 Patriots sneak across riverAttack at dawnCapture 900+ HessiansEven more important were supplies neededLeads them toward Princeton, NJ and wins there too!!!DukkGrovO2j7Y05:05-5:30, 7:15-8:30
12A British Plan for Victory British battle plan for 1777Gain control of the Hudson River; cutting off NE from rest of colonies3-pronged attackGen. John Burgoyne-8,000 troops south from CanadaLt. Col. Barry St. Leger east from Lake OntarioGen. William Howe north from NYCAlbany and destroy Patriot force
13The British Capture Philadelphia Howe planned to take Philly B4 marching to AlbanyAmerican CapitalSept win 2 battles near capitalThen takes PhiladelphiaForcing Congress to fleeWashington attacks the Brits @ nearby Germantown in responseG-Dub is forced to withdraw but…delays Howe enough that he can’t meet up w/ Burgoyne and St. Albany… yet!Decides to spend winter in PhillyAlright Philadelphia, we got ‘ya surrounded! Come out w/ your cheese steaks in the air!!!
14Patriots Slow the British Problems delay Brit plans on AlbanyAugust St. Leger’s advance halted by Benedict ArnoldForced to retreatGen. Burgoyne not doing well eitherJuly Burgoyne takes Fort TiconderogaBut…He’s a fancy GeneralLikes good food, and fine clothingTravels w/ 30 wagons of luxury goodsExtra baggage+ Dense forests+ Patriots chopping down trees to block paths= VERY SLOW MOVEMENTIn need of food and supplies he sends 800 men to take supplies from nearby Bennington, VTBrits bright red jackets make easy targets for Green Mountain BoysVT militiaHaving lost lg. part of army and now desperate for suppliesBurgoyne retreats to town of Saratoga, NY in October‘Green Mountain Boys’ flag
15The Battle of Saratoga@ Saratoga, Burgoyne expected Brit forces from West and South to joinBut…St. Leger was Fort Stanwix, NYHowe still in PhillyPlus…Patriot troops under Gen. Horatio Gates blocked Burgoyne’s path to southBurgoyne surrounded by army of Patriots 3x the size of his!!!17 October Butt Kickin’ Time!!!Burgoyne surrenders!5,700 Brits hand over weapons to PatriotsWhile band plays “Yankee Doodle!”British plan to separate NE from rest of colonies failsTurning Point in the War!!!Soon after, General William Howe resigns as Commander of British TroopsReplaced by General Henry Clinton