Presentation on theme: "THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1776-1783 The Early Years."— Presentation transcript:
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: The Early Years
The Opposing Sides After D of I, war for independence was unavoidable Both sides thought war would be short Brits thought would crush Patriots Patriots thought Brits would give up after few losses First glance… Brits overwhelming advantage Best navy in world Experienced, well-trained army Much larger population Brits: 8+ million Colonists: 2.5 million Wealth of a worldwide empire Patriot Disadvantages Lacked regular army Most militia (volunteers) No navy Lacked experience, guns, and ammo Not all colonists supported the cause Some were neutral Some were Loyalists PATRIOT Parkway LOYALIST Lane
The Loyalists (or “Tories”) Those who remained loyal to the crown As many as 20-33% of colonists Some changed sides during war (whoever was closest) Loyalist strength varied by region Strongest in the South Weakest in NE Why… Some remained members of Anglican Church (king is leader) Jobs depended on the crown Many feared the disorder Son vs. father, brother vs. brother, family vs. friends Thought problems w/ crown were trivial Others couldn’t understand what the problem was (communication?)
African Americans in the War Some blacks sided w/ loyalists too! At beginning Brits promised all enslaved Africans that fought for the crown would become free! Many answered the call In time some ended up freed in Canada Others freed and sent back to Africa Colony of Sierra Leone West coast of Africa
Patriot Advantages Possessed some advantages too! Fought on own ground Knew the terrain It was theirs! Great determination; personal stake in the result Greatest advantage was their leader… G-Dub! Few could match his courage, honesty, and determination British disadvantages Brits mostly hired army, and mercenaries… Hessian Mercenaries German soldiers for hire They don’t really care about cause; just money Forced to fight in far away land Forced to ship soldiers and supplies 1,000’s of miles
Raising an Army These new Americans used liberty and freedom as basis of argument to throw off England Result… Unwilling to grant full power to Congress Makes it difficult to enlist soldiers and raise money for war effort Militia played important role but… Still huge need for well trained army who could fight anywhere States had to recruit At first… Soldiers signed 1-year contracts Washington appealed for longer terms Some did sign longer, but most signed 1-year contracts Why problem… constantly have to retrain Some women even fought Margaret Corbin of PA Went w/ husband when he signed up When he died, she took his place Mary Ludwig Hayes McCauley also went w/ husband Soldiers called her “Molly Pitcher” b/c she would bring pitchers of water to the battle Deborah Sampson disguised herself as a man and enlisted
Fighting in New York Most early battles involved few troops Bunker Hill Brits- 2,200 men Patriots- 1,200 men Brits knew need more troops to win quickly During summer of 1776 Brits sent 32,000 troops across to NY British commander General William Howe Hoped sheer size would scare Patriots enough to win Sadly mistaken
Defeat on Long Island Although Washington and Patriots had fewer than 20,000 men Determined to fight Aug Battle of Long Island Outnumbered and outmaneuvered Patriots suffer serious defeat Although Patriots brave… Very few supplies Many without socks, shoes, coats, and blankets Tough in NY autumn, worse in NY winter Nathan Hale- Becomes hero of Long Island Former-teacher from CT Volunteers to spy on Brits as Dutch schoolteacher Brits discover him; sentenced to death Last Words… “I regret that I have, but one life to lose for my country!!!”
A Low Point After loss at Long Island G-Dub retreats to Manhattan By late-Nov. retreat across NJ then into PA By winter of Cause near collapse Size of Continental Army shrinking fast Some terms of service up- went home Others ran away W/O new soldiers cause would surely crumble!
African Americans Join the Fight Patriots Gain G-Dub begs Congress to enlist freed men Early on… South convinces Congress not to Many scared of handing blacks guns!?! Southern states feared revolts As need grew, some states ignored ban Some fought as early as Concord and Lexington!!! RI raises all-black regiment in 1778 except SC By end, every state except SC has black soldiers Estimates of 5,000+ black soldiers for Patriots Fought for same reasons, and same cause Some runaway slaves too, or those fighting in exchange for freedom “all men created equal,” Don’t know that “all men created equal,” doesn’t mean them!
American Victories in New Jersey Brits settled in NY for winter of 1776 Didn’t fight in winter; at least, did not expect to fight Left some troops in Trenton & Princeton, NJ Stationed across the Delaware River from the Brits, G-Dub sees his chance! Christmas night 1776, 2,400 Patriots sneak across river Attack at dawn Capture 900+ Hessians Even more important were supplies needed Leads them toward Princeton, NJ and wins there too!!! DukkGro DukkGro vO2j7Y0 vO2j7Y0 5:05-5:30, 7:15-8:30
A British Plan for Victory British battle plan for 1777 Gain control of the Hudson River; cutting off NE from rest of colonies 3-pronged attack Gen. John Burgoyne-8,000 troops south from Canada Lt. Col. Barry St. Leger east from Lake Ontario Gen. William Howe north from NYC Albany and destroy Patriot force
The British Capture Philadelphia Howe planned to take Philly B4 marching to Albany American Capital Sept win 2 battles near capital Then takes Philadelphia Forcing Congress to flee Washington attacks the nearby Germantown in response G-Dub is forced to withdraw but… delays Howe enough that he can’t meet up w/ Burgoyne and St. Albany… yet! Decides to spend winter in Philly Alright Philadelphia, we got ‘ya surrounded! Come out w/ your cheese steaks in the air!!!
Patriots Slow the British Problems delay Brit plans on Albany August St. Leger’s advance halted by Benedict Arnold Forced to retreat Gen. Burgoyne not doing well either July Burgoyne takes Fort Ticonderoga But… fancy He’s a fancy General Likes good food, and fine clothing Travels w/ 30 wagons of luxury goods Extra baggage + Dense forests + Patriots chopping down trees to block paths VERY SLOW MOVEMENT = VERY SLOW MOVEMENT In need of food and supplies he sends 800 men to take supplies from nearby Bennington, VT Brits bright red jackets make easy targets for Green Mountain Boys VT militia Having lost lg. part of army and now desperate for supplies Burgoyne retreats to town of Saratoga, NY in October ‘Green Mountain Boys’ ‘Green Mountain Boys’ flag
The Battle of Saratoga Saratoga, Burgoyne expected Brit forces from West and South to join But… St. Leger was Fort Stanwix, NY Howe still in Philly Plus… Patriot troops under Gen. Horatio Gates blocked Burgoyne’s path to south Burgoyne surrounded by army of Patriots 3x the size of his!!! 17 October Butt Kickin’ Time!!! Burgoyne surrenders! 5,700 Brits hand over weapons to Patriots While band plays “Yankee Doodle!” British plan to separate NE from rest of colonies fails Turning Point in the War!!! Soon after, General William Howe resigns as Commander of British Troops Replaced by General Henry Clinton