Presentation on theme: "US H ISTORY Chapter 6 Section 1 T AKING S IDES Neutral – taking no side in a conflict Britain Strongest navy, well-trained army, larger population Some."— Presentation transcript:
T AKING S IDES Neutral – taking no side in a conflict Britain Strongest navy, well-trained army, larger population Some support of colonists (Loyalists/ Tories) (1 in 5) Why Loyalist? Southern Colonies experienced little harassment Members of the Anglican Church Fear of governmental disorder No real cause (other than taxes) Africans who fought would be freed (British decree) Patriots No strong army or navy or experience and low ammunition Volunteer fighters (short terms) and N\not all colonists are Patriots Advantages: Home team advantage No mercenaries -hired soldiers to fight (British – Hessians ) Fighting for “freedom”, not money Leader – George Washington
A V OLUNTEER A RMY Congress established the Continental Army – relied on the states for recruits Recruit – to enlist At first, term was for one year. Later, 3 years (or the whole war) Women Patriots: Margaret Corbin – followed her husband to battle, When her husband died, she took his place fighting Molly Pitcher – nickname for Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley who carried water to the soldiers Deborah Sampson – disguised herself as a boy to fight in the army with her brothers
F IGHTING B EGINS General William Howe – 32,000 troops from Britain Battle of Long Island Nathan Hale – Patriot schoolteacher who attempted to spy on the British, but was caught “I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country” Patriots lose and retreat to Manhattan In the winter of 1776, many leave (terms up, fear) Washington needed more troops He asked the Congress to enlist free African Americans Southerners were hesitant, but every state except South Carolina had enlisted African Americans by the end Lemuel Hayes and Peter Salem – fought at Concord
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P ATRIOT V ICTORIES Trenton and Princeton – Christmas 1776 Washington crosses the Delaware River British caught off-guard at Trenton British send reinforcements with Lord Charles Cornwallis Washington marches to Princeton British Battle Plan for 1777 Take Albany, New York, and the Hudson River General John Burgoyne from Canada Lt. Colonial Berry St. Leger east from Ontario General Howe – north from NYC Meet at Albany… Destroy the Patriots
A CTUAL B ATTLES General Howe – captures Philadelphia Philadelphia - American capital (forces the Congress out) Brandywine and Paoli – battles for Philadelphia Washington attacks at Germantown but loses Howe pauses for the winter in Philly Patriots halt St. Leger at Fort Stanwix Patriots, led by Benedict Arnold, force retreat General Burgoyne blocked by the terrain He had a large inventory of stuff, so slow travel Patriots cut down trees to block his path Green Mountain Boys – attacked in the woods (red coats) Retreats to Saratoga General Horatio Gates – Patriot leader Oct 17, 1777 – Burgoyne surrenders while band play “Yankee Doodle” General Howe resigns, replaced by General Henry Clinton
Section 1-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Checking for Understanding __ 1.to enlist soldiers in the army __ 2.taking no side in a conflict __ 3.paid soldier who serves in the army of a foreign country A.neutral B.mercenary C.recruit Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. C A B