Presentation on theme: "Ch 6 Revolutionary War. British ( Loyalist) “ loyal” to Britain Advantages Strong and experienced army and navy Wealth Larger population African Americans."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 6 Revolutionary War
British ( Loyalist) “ loyal” to Britain Advantages Strong and experienced army and navy Wealth Larger population African Americans Disadvantages Long way from home Relied on mercenaries called Hessians Unfamiliar of territory
Americans ( Patriots) “Fight for freedom” Advantages Fight on own soil Determination Leader George Washington Disadvantages Inexperience troops-militia Lack of experience and supplies Difficult to recruit troops Divided support-neutral
Women in War Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley accompanied her husband and carried water pitcher to the soldiers. AKA “ Moll of Pitcher” or Molly Pitcher Margaret Corbin accompanied her husband in the battle. When he died, she took his place.
Women in War Deborah Sampson disguised herself as a boy and enlisted in the army.
Battle of Long Island William Howe British general Sent from England with 32,000 troops Nathan Hale Schoolteacher who spied on British troops Discovered and hanged by British
Washington only had 20,000 troops which many did not have socks, shoes, or jackets. Supplies were limited. The Patriots were chased across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. Defeat on Long Island
Patriot Gains Battle of Trenton –British armies did not expect to fight during winter –Washington takes chance to attack Trenton –Christmas night 1776 –Captured 900 Hessians –Cornwallis sent with reinforcements –Washington led troops away from Cornwallis
Battle of Princeton After leading troops away from Cornwallis’ men, Washington went to Princeton There he drove the British troops away
British Plan for Victory To take Albany, NY and gain control of Hudson river by attacking from Canada (Gen John Burgoyne), Lake Ontario (Lt Col Barry St Leger) and NY (Gen Howe) Delays: –En route Howe takes Philadelphia and spends winter there with troops –St Leger attacked by Benedict Arnold forcing the British to retreat –Burgoyne’s heavy baggage caused army to move slowly allowing Americans blocked them by chopping trees in paths. Later attacked by Green Mountain boys caused a retreat to Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga Burgoyne’s reinforcements delayed American troops led by Gen Horatio Gates Burgoyne’s army attacks October 7 but surrenders 10 days later
A Patriot band played “Yankee Doodle” as 5,700 redcoats handed over their weapons. British plan FAILED Gen Howe resigns Replaced by Gen Henry Clinton
Vocabulary: neutral mercenaries recruit Hessians taking neither side in a conflict hired soldiers hired German soldiers enlist, sign up
The victory of Saratoga boosted American spirits and was considered the turning point of the Revolutionary War. In 1777, Benjamin Franklin had been to Paris for a year trying to get the French’s support in the war. Franklin made many friends or alliances for the United States.
Turning Point Why??? Led France to announce support of Americans in 1778 Led Spain to declare war on Britain 1779
Winter at Valley Forge Gen Howe’s winter home now in Philadelphia Gen Washington and troops set up winter camp at Valley Forge
One-Fourth of the American army died from: - freezing conditions - small pox - typhoid fever - lack of food, shelter, and clothing. Martha Washington and other volunteers made clothes for soldiers and cared for sick Spirits rose after hearing of French alliance
La Fayette Von Steuben French nobleman Marquis de Lafayette becomes trusted aide to Washington German Gen Friedrich von Steuben turned Continental Army into fighting force Juan de Miralles petitioned Spain, Cuba and Mexico for financial aid to colonies Allies send help to Americans
These men trained and drilled the American troops throughout the brutal winter. They learned European military formations. The Patriots soldiers became a real army.
Money Problems Congress did not have the authorization to raise money through taxes; so it started to print more money than the gold and silver they had was worth. This caused inflation.
Life on the Home Front Women started to take over men’s chores and ran business causing women to question their own equality. Abigail Adams wrote her husband John Adams that it was unfair for Congress to talk about freedom and liberty for the nation while men still held power over their wives.
Hopes for Equality From the beginning – Lexington, Concord and Battle of Bunker Hill - African Americans soldiers fought for the American cause and to some freedom. To both White’s and African Americans, the Revolutionary war seemed to bring nearer the end of slavery.
Vocabulary: deserted inflation left without permission the continuous rise the cost of goods and services