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East Asia: Timeline Project

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1 East Asia: Timeline Project
8000 B.C.E. – Present By: Arianna Kee, Brandon Caruso, Christina Pack, and Victor Rerick

2 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.: China Han Dynasty (206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E.)-
-Longest lasting Chinese dynasty, Liu Bang claimed the mandate of heaven -Demand for Chinese silk led to development of trade routes such as the silk roads -Issues: land distribution, private armies, unrest (yellow turban uprising), economic decline -Internal weakness led to downfall of empire, which was divided into several large kingdoms Qin Dynasty (221 – 206 B.C.E.)- -Used Legalist philosophy to restore order to China and end the Warring States period -Gave peasants land rights to farm remote territories, thus weakening social hierarchy -Centralized bureaucracy ruled the state, short-lived because of strict laws and harsh punishments -Achievements: standardized weights and measures, script, Shi Huangdi’s construction of the Great Wall Zhou Dynasty - -Ruled by proclamation, adopted customs and culture of Shang -Overthrew Shang Dynasty, justified by the Mandate of Heaven (power to rule comes from heavenly powers) -Cultural achievements: poetry, history, rituals, political essays, morals, religion and philosophy Xia Dynasty: Yellow River Civilization- -Unpredictable flowing of Huang He, Yellow River, led to its nickname, China’s Sorrow -Legendary founder, Yu, initiated flood-control projects, organized public works and set up formal government Warring States (403 – 221 B.C.E.) -Time of disunity for China, independent states adopted Legalist philosophies as the basis for their rule -Development of Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism- period also known as the Hundred Schools of Thought Shang Dynasty ( B.C.E.) – -Rise and success based on technology, especially bronze -Controlled production of bronze by monopolizing mines and employing craftsmen -Well armed military extended control to northeastern China

3 600 – 1450: China Bubonic Plague- Ming Dynasty and Zheng He-
-spread from southwestern China (1300) killing 90% of Chinese living in the northeast Ming Dynasty and Zheng He- -funded Zheng He’s voyages from , demonstrating China’s ability to be a military, political and economic power in the Indian Ocean -established tributary relationships Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE)- -Tang Taizong saw himself as a Confucian ruler -Equal distribution of agricultural land kept land out of the hands of wealthy elite -Government jobs in extensive bureaucracy were merit based, determined by civil service exams -Military conquests included Manchuria, Tibet, Korea and Vietnam Song Dynasty ( )- -Song Taizu started distrust of military leaders, focused on civil service exams -Financial problems: bureaucracy too big -Military problems: scholar bureaucrats’ had limited military experience Technological Development of Tang and Song Dynasties- -abundant food supplies, high quality porcelain, metallurgic technologies (iron and steal stronger) -Military advances: gunpowder, Printing technology: movable type Sui Dynasty (589–618 CE)- -Built Grand Canal, linked northern and southern economies -610s:rebellions broke out in northern China -618: emperor Sui Yangdi was assassinated and the dynasty ended Yuan Dynasty- -established by Mongols, keep some Chinese aspects -china prospers under the Yuan economically because of an increase in the use of trade routes and silk roads Neo-Confucianism- -developed in response to the growing popularity of Buddhism -combination of Confucian and Buddhist beliefs, continuation of civil service exams

4 600 – 1450: Japan Heian Period (794 to 1185)- Medieval Japan-
-Noted for its art, poetry and literature -Power centralized in Fujiwara family, only boys received a formal education -Decline resulted from a failure of the equal-field system Medieval Japan- -Includes the Kamakura and Muromachi periods -Chinese style bureaucracy was abandoned and replaced by decentralized political power -Valued military talent, samurais were important in society Nara Period ( )- -Japan’s first urban center -Adoption of Chinese writing, fashion, religion and overall culture -Modeled after Chang’an, fused Shinto beliefs with Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism Feudalism in Japan- -Bushido code of conduct, Daimyo warriors -Emperor was the figurehead, Shogun really controlled

5 1450 – 1750: China Forbidden City-
-Capital of the Ming and Qing empires, located in modern day Beijing Qing Dynasty- -Manchus from the north invade china and claimed the mandate of heaven -Used Confucianism principles to govern, and expanded the empire -Followed political example of the Ming, ruled through scholar-bureaucrats -Trade with foreigners increased, higher demand for Chinese goods Ming Dynasty: social and cultural changes- -The revival of the civil service exams encouraged the creation of an extensive scholar-bureaucrat, which was responsible for much of the governments empire. -The restoration of Confucian traditions encouraged the subordination of women, and in many ways women’s lives were even more tightly controlled than previously -The Yongle Encyclopedia collection of Chinese philosophy, literature, and history was recorded -The Chinese novel’s gain in popularity led to an increase in literacy Ming Economic Growth- - An increase in commercial activity as well as an increase in population led to an overall expansion of the economy. -New food crops led to a population increase -Overseas trade became more extensive, merchant class grew -Calligraphy and landscape are still highly valued -Single whip tax system: policy in the 1570’s that required a single national tax and that all taxes be paid in the form of silver The Great Wall- -Construction began in the 4th century B.C.E. under Shi Huangdi, it was completed under the Ming in response to the Mongol invasions

6 1450 – 1750: Japan Tokugawa Period: Social and Economic Changes
-The samurai and daimyo classes who had been involved in fighting civil wars were able to concentrate their time on new endeavors, because of the peace and stability during this time -New crops led to a population increase -Cities grew and trade increased, benefiting the merchant class -New cultural traditions developed such as the kabuki theatre Tokugawa Period: Isolation (Pax Tokugawa) -The Portugese established a commercial relationship between the two nations in 1543 -Christian missionaries arrived in mid 1500s in hopes of converting Japanese, and shoguns began to restrict contact with foreigners -Seclusion acts banned missionary activities and the religion -By the 1640s foreign trade was forbidden except for the limited trade with Dutch and Chinese trade Tokugawa Period: Political Change -Unification of Japan in the late 1500s led to the establishment of a military government led by a shogun -Shoguns sought to centralize their authority, taking power away from the daimyo, and maintain stability -Daimyo estates were broken up and attendance at the imperial court in Edo was required

7 1750 – 1914: China Fall of the Qing Opium War
-1911 had a revolution in China, unequal treaties and rebellions left the ruling family weak -Nationalism on the rise, Empress Dowager Cixi’s death led to more revolution -In 1912 the last Qing ruler abdicated and Chinese nationalists called for a new government -Sun Yat-sen, took control envisioning China free of foreign invaders and based on republican rule Opium War -Conflict fought between Britain and China -British East India Company began importing opium into China where they traded it for silver and threatened the trade balance -Lin Zexu confiscated and destroyed the opium leading to British military action -British military superiority led to a victory over the Chinese and the signing of unequal treaties (treaty of Nanjing) Spheres of Influence established in China -Foreigners took advantage and seized control of China’s tributary states -Western powers gained exclusive trading rights within China -U.s. foreign policy sought equal trading rights for all nations trading in China and commercial advantage for U.S. businesses Rebellions -TAIPING REBELLION (1850s-1860s)- rebellion that threatened the Qing Dynasty/ wanted the redistribution of land, public education and rights for women/led to the self-strengthening movement (an attempt at Qing reform)/ ultimately ended in failure -BOXER REBELLION ( )- sought to rid china of foreign influence/ ended in failure/ China had to pay reparations/ weakened the ruling family

8 1750 – 1914: Japan Meiji Restoration- Opening of Japan-
Russo-Japanese War -Conflict between Russian and Japan for control of parts of Korea and Manchuria -1904, Japan attacked Port Arthur, a Russian port in southern Manchuria, and then Korea -Resulted in Japanese Victory. Treaty of Portsmouth- Russia gave their largest island in the pacific, Port Arthur, Manchuria and Korea Meiji Restoration- -Rebellion overthrew the shogun and replaced by an emperor who initiated social, economic, and political reforms -Centralized government, established a new constitution, set up a two house system -Japanese modernization: economy industrialized with the support of the government which built factories, railroads and banks/ army and navy modernized/ improved health care and education system Opening of Japan- -1853, U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Tokyo bay requested that Japan open up to foreign trade -Treaty of Kanagawa signed by both nations opened Japan to trade -Japanese isolation ended; the country focused on rapid modernization Sino-Japanese War- -War fought between China and Japan for control of Korea -Qing signed the Treaty of Shimonoseku agreeing to stay out of Korea, gave up rights to parts of Manchuria and ceded Taiwan to the Japanese

9 1914 – Present: China Chinese Civil War Deng Xiaoping Mao Zedong-
-Conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communist parties -Sun Yat-sen (leader of the new Chinese republic) party, the Kuomintang promoted nationalism, democracy and livelihood (3 Principles of the People) -1934, communists retreated during the Long March they traveled over 6,000 miles -During WW2 civil war was suspended in an effort to fight the Japanese invasion -After WW2 the Communist Party seized control -1949 Mao Zedong created the Peoples Republic of China, a communist nation; the Nationalists fled to nearby Taiwan, which is still the situation today Deng Xiaoping -1976, replaced Mao Zedong as leader of communist China, willing to make economic reforms but not political ones -Four Modernizations: an attempt to promote trade and contact with the west (reforms in the areas of farming, industry, science and defense) -Reformed land distribution and allowed private ownership -Tiananmen Square (1989)- Chinses students peacefully protested lack of political freedoms and were unjustly killed or wounded Mao Zedong- -Defeated the Kuomintang in civil war -Influenced by Marxist ideology, young students were trained to be Red Guards -The Great Leap Forward was a five-year plan aimed at increasing industrial production and agricultural output which ultimately failed Asian Tigers -Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan enjoyed rapid growth rates and were majore economic powers by the 1980s -Competed with Japan Cultural Revolution- -Launched by Mao Zedong in 1966 to seek out opposition to his leadership -Red Guards were given authority and targeted the elites -Contributed to instability and inhibited social and economic advancements

10 1914 – Present: Japan Japanese Invasion of China (1937)
U.S. Occupation of Japan -After Japan’s surrender in WW2 Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under General MacArthur -A new constitution was adopted in 1947, instituted democratic reforms -Japan’s military was severely limited, although the nation was permitted to create a self defense force in 1954 -After U.S. occupation ended in 1952 Japan’s resources were committed to a course of industrialization and are now one of the world’s economic superpowers Japanese Invasion of China (1937) -Hoped to gain control of China’s extensive resources -Japan quickly gained control of northern and eastern China Rape of Nanking -Japan began aerial bombing of major Chinese cities -Japanese troops extreme nationalism led to soldiers murdering unarmed soldiers and civilians, raping approximately 7,000 women and burned a third of homes Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor -Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 to try and destroy American naval forces -They disabled 18 ships and destroyed 200 others Dropping of Atomic Bomb -Okinawa gave U.S. bombers access to Japanese main islands -In 1945, President Truman dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and a second on Nagasaki when Japan did not surrender Murkden Incident -Occurred in Mancuria in 1931, when Japanese troops blew up part of the South Manchurian Railway and accused Chian of sabotage -1932, Japan gained control of Manchuria -When the League of Nations condemned Japan’s actions it withdrew from the League

11 Changes… China went through many ruling Dynasties, with even the Mongols in control. China was briefly democratic, and is now Communist. Japan used Feudal systems for hundreds of years and Emperor never held much true power. Japan becomes democratic after U.S. occupancy The Silk Road trade dies off after the 1600s and China remains isolated in trade until it is taken over by Spheres of Influence and opens up to global trade in the later part of the 20th century. Japan bans Christianity, then accepts it again in the late 1800s and it becomes one of the major religions, along with the native Shinto and Buddhism, after WWII. Communist China bans all religion. Agriculture taken over by the CPC with the 5-Year Plan and collectivization. Japan becomes an important industrialized nation in the 1900s. Women gain rights.

12 Continuities… China’s government was in the same Dynastic system for most of its’ history, and the country was supported by the mass Agricultural peasants. The Chinese people usually secretly held whatever beliefs they wanted even when it was illegal. Japan always maintained its’ respect for traditions and many people remained Shinto which is the Native religion. Both China and Japan were able to stay away from the colonialization by Western nations.

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