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口腔診斷學 陳玉昆副教授 : 高雄醫學大學 口腔病理科 07-3121101~2755 Mass in the Neck 頸部腫脹.

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Presentation on theme: "口腔診斷學 陳玉昆副教授 : 高雄醫學大學 口腔病理科 07-3121101~2755 Mass in the Neck 頸部腫脹."— Presentation transcript:

1 口腔診斷學 陳玉昆副教授 : 高雄醫學大學 口腔病理科 ~2755 Mass in the Neck 頸部腫脹

2 學 習 目 標學 習 目 標 1. 明白頸部腫脹之鑑別診斷

3 1.Wood, Goaz. Differential Diagnosis of Oral Lesions. Mosby Publisher, 3 rd Edition, Chapter 29, 自購網路資源: super_toolcool 3. 網路資源 (anonymous) 4. 口腔影像的臨床診斷, 2nd edition, Chapter 12, p Eric Whaites: Essentials of dental radiography & radiology 3rd edition, Chapter 31, p Kaohsiung Medical University Oral Pathology 7.Crispian Scully. Handbook of oral disease - diagnosis and management. Martin Dunitz Publisher, 1st ed. p , Yeshwant B. Rawal, Carl M. Allen, John R. Kalmar. A nodular submental mass. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007;104: 彼得 史彼爾人. 漢聲雜誌 民國 86, 5 月, p Carlson ER et al. Neck dissections for oral/head and neck cancer: J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006;64: Misra S et al. Management of gingivobuccal complex cancer. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2008;90: WoolgarJ et al. Neck dissections: A practical guide for the reporting histopathologist. Current Diag Pathol 2007;13: References: 參考資料

4 Mass of the Neck Contains many vital anatomic structures & diverse tissue types Diverse and varied pathological lesions Examination of neck should be performed in patient evaluation Constitutes a small % of the total body area Refs. 2, 3, 9

5 Mass of the Neck A rule of thumb for the duration of the mass Day (7 days): Inflammatory lesions Month (7 months): Neoplasm Year (7 years): Congenital lesions

6 Mass of the Neck Certain lesions are found in discrete anatomic locations A knowledge of those lesions associated with specific regions in the neck is useful Certain lesions are found in discrete anatomic locations A knowledge of those lesions associated with specific regions in the neck is useful Mass of nonspecific location Skin & subcutaneous tissues within the neck - mobile skin - cervical fascia Mass of nonspecific location Skin & subcutaneous tissues within the neck - mobile skin - cervical fascia Regional approach Ref. 2

7 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location Masses in submandibular region Masses in parotid region Masses in median-paramedian region Masses in lateral region Mass of specific location Masses in submandibular region Masses in parotid region Masses in median-paramedian region Masses in lateral region submandible parotid(para)medianlateral ‘ Which’ region will have ‘which’ lesions Ref. 1

8 Mass of the Neck 1. Submental node 2. Submandibular node 3. Cranial jugular (deep cervical) node 4. Medial jugular (deep cervical) node 5. Caudal jugular (deep cervical) node 6. Dorsal jugular (superficial cervical) node along accessory n 7. Supraclavicular node 8. Prelaryngeal & paratracheal node 9. Retropharyngeal node 10. Parotid node 11. Buccal node 12. Retroauricular & occipital node 12 cervical lymph nodes Ref. 1

9 Mass of the Neck Levels 1-III: Sentinel LN of oral cancer (1 st meta LNs) Refs. 10, 11 Levels I-V: Basis of the nomenclature for the classification of neck dissections for oral/head & neck cancers

10 Ref. 10 Mass of the Neck

11 Ref. 12 Mass of the Neck

12 Ref. 12

13 Mass of the Neck Ref. 12

14 Mass of the Neck Ref. 12

15 Mass of the Neck Ref. 12

16 Mass of the Neck Ref. 12

17 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location Masses in submandibular region Lymph nodes: first echelon node - the first node that encounter the tumor cell or microorganism Lymph nodes: enlargement - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia : acute lymphadenitis - metastatic cervical node - lymphoma Mass of specific location Masses in submandibular region Lymph nodes: first echelon node - the first node that encounter the tumor cell or microorganism Lymph nodes: enlargement - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia : acute lymphadenitis - metastatic cervical node - lymphoma Ref. 1

18 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location ( 觸診 ) Masses in submandibular region Lymph nodes: enlargement - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia movable, painless, non-tender : acute lymphadenitis movable/fixed, painful, tender - metastatic cervical node fixed, painless, non-tender, hard - lymphoma (solitary/multiple; uni/bilateral) fixed, painless, non-tender, rubber/firm Mass of specific location ( 觸診 ) Masses in submandibular region Lymph nodes: enlargement - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia movable, painless, non-tender : acute lymphadenitis movable/fixed, painful, tender - metastatic cervical node fixed, painless, non-tender, hard - lymphoma (solitary/multiple; uni/bilateral) fixed, painless, non-tender, rubber/firm Find the origin Ref. 1

19 Mass of the Neck Find the origin: - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia : acute lymphadenitis Infection source- pericoronitis (third molar) - infected cyst - metastatic cervical node Primary tumor – oral SCC, NPC, others - lymphoma (solitary/multiple; uni/bilateral) History, biopsy, imaging examination Find the origin: - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia : acute lymphadenitis Infection source- pericoronitis (third molar) - infected cyst - metastatic cervical node Primary tumor – oral SCC, NPC, others - lymphoma (solitary/multiple; uni/bilateral) History, biopsy, imaging examination Ref. 2

20 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location Masses in submandibular region Submandibular space infection (cellulitis) Pericoronitis (third molar), infected cyst Submandibular gland infection (sialadenitis) Pain & swelling prior to eating Submandibular gland neoplasm Biopsy, imaging examination (sialography, CT) Mass of specific location Masses in submandibular region Submandibular space infection (cellulitis) Pericoronitis (third molar), infected cyst Submandibular gland infection (sialadenitis) Pain & swelling prior to eating Submandibular gland neoplasm Biopsy, imaging examination (sialography, CT) Ref. 1

21 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location ( 觸診 ) Masses in parotid region Enlarged lymph nodes - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia movable, painless, non-tender : acute lymphadenitis movable/fixed, painful, tender - metastatic cervical node fixed, painless, non-tender, hard - lymphoma (solitary/multiple; uni/bilateral) fixed, painless, non-tender, rubber/firm Mass of specific location ( 觸診 ) Masses in parotid region Enlarged lymph nodes - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia movable, painless, non-tender : acute lymphadenitis movable/fixed, painful, tender - metastatic cervical node fixed, painless, non-tender, hard - lymphoma (solitary/multiple; uni/bilateral) fixed, painless, non-tender, rubber/firm Locate the origin Ref. 1

22 Mass of the Neck Locate the origin: - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia : acute lymphadenitis Infection source- infected cyst (congenital preauricular cyst, sebaceous cyst) - metastatic parotid node Primary tumor – oral SCC, NPC, others - lymphoma (solitary/multiple; uni/bilateral) Biopsy, imaging examination Locate the origin: - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia : acute lymphadenitis Infection source- infected cyst (congenital preauricular cyst, sebaceous cyst) - metastatic parotid node Primary tumor – oral SCC, NPC, others - lymphoma (solitary/multiple; uni/bilateral) Biopsy, imaging examination Ref. 2

23 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location Masses in parotid region Parotid gland infection (parotitis) Stone in Stensen’s duct, virus, bacteria Parotid gland neoplasm Benign (70%), malignant (30%) Biopsy, imaging examination (sialography, CT) Mass of specific location Masses in parotid region Parotid gland infection (parotitis) Stone in Stensen’s duct, virus, bacteria Parotid gland neoplasm Benign (70%), malignant (30%) Biopsy, imaging examination (sialography, CT) Ball in hand Refs. 2, 4, 5

24 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location Masses in parotid region Bilateral parotid enlargement Mikulicz’s disease Benign lymphoepithelial lesion (enlargement of parotid, lacrymal glands) Mickulicz’s syndrome ( 非 lymphoepithelial lesion) Associated with lymphoma, sarcoidosis, TB Sjogren’s syndrome Xerostomia, conjunctivitis, rheumatoid arthritis Mass of specific location Masses in parotid region Bilateral parotid enlargement Mikulicz’s disease Benign lymphoepithelial lesion (enlargement of parotid, lacrymal glands) Mickulicz’s syndrome ( 非 lymphoepithelial lesion) Associated with lymphoma, sarcoidosis, TB Sjogren’s syndrome Xerostomia, conjunctivitis, rheumatoid arthritis

25 Mass of the Neck Biparotid enlargement Xerostomia Dry eye Primary Sjogren syndrome Secondary Sjogren syndrome Xerostomia Conjunctivitis sicca Connective tissue disease (auto- immune disease) Ref. 7

26 Mass of the Neck General Data  姓名:杜 XX  性別:男  年齡: 34 歲  出生地:苗栗  居住地:高雄  婚姻狀況:已婚  初診日期: X 年 X 月 X 日 Ref. 6

27 Mass of the Neck Chief Complaint  A swelling mass of R’t parotid area Ref. 6

28 Mass of the Neck Present Illness  This 34 y/o male has found a nodule over right infra-auricular area for 5~6 years, which was painless and no special feeling. So, he didn’t pay attention about it. Recently he went to LDC for full mouth scaling, the LDC dentist noted this swelling. According to his statement, he felt it grew larger and tenderness recently. So, he come to our OPD for further evaluation and treatment.

29 Mass of the Neck Personal History  Alcohol (-)  Betel quid (-)  Smoking (-)  Denied other special habits

30 Mass of the Neck Past History Past Medical History   Denied any systemic disease   Drug allergy (+) : unknown Past Dental History   OD   Prosthesis   Tooth Extraction  Full mouth scaling

31 Mass of the Neck Clinical Examination  Fluctuation: __  Pain: __  Tenderness: +  Mobility: movable  Induration: __  Lymphadenopathy: __ Extra-oral Ref. 6

32 Mass of the Neck CT Findings Petrous effect Ref. 6

33 Features Suggestive of Benignancy 1.Movable (except palate) 2.Unattached to skin or mucosa (except palate) 3.No ulceration of skin or mucosa 4.Slow growth 5.Long duration 6.No pain 7.No facial nerve palsy Features Suggestive of Malignancy 1.Induration 2.Fixed to overlying skin or mucosa 3.Ulceration of skin or mucosa 4.Rapid growth; Growth spurt 5.Short duration 6.Pain, often severe 7.Facial nerve palsy Ref. 6

34 Infection or Benign / Malignant  Pain (-)  Growing slowly (5~6 years)  Smooth surface  CT findings : demarcated margin  No other structure destruction Mass of the Neck  Benign Tumor

35 Working Diagnoses  Pleomorphic Adenoma  Warthin’s Tumor  Basal Cell Adenoma  Oncocytoma Mass of the Neck

36 Pleomorphic Adenoma  53% ~ 77% of parotid tumors  Painless, slow growing, firm mass  Facial palsy & pain are rare  Age: 30 ~ 50 y/o  Slight female predilection

37 Warthin ’ s Tumor  Occurs almost exclusively in the parotid gland  5 % ~ 14 % of parotid tumors  Slow-growing, nodular mass  Firm to fluctuant to palpation  Bilateral occurrence (5-14%)  Age: older adults, y/o  Associated with smoking Mass of the Neck

38 Basal Cell Adenoma  Parotid (75%)  1st, minor glands  2nd (esp. upper lip, buccal mucosa)  Age: middle-aged 、 older adults 、 61~70 (most)  Sex predilection: female ( female : male = 2:1 in some study)  Slow growing, freely movable mass, similar to pleomorphic adenoma  Most tumors are less than 3 cm in diameter  1% of all salivary gland tumor

39 Oncocytoma  Painless, slow growing,  Firm mass rarely > 4cm  80% in parotid gland  Older adults, 71~80 (peak)  Slight female predilection  Occurrence: < 1% of all salivary gland tumor Mass of the Neck

40  Pleomorphic Adenoma, right parotid gland Clinical Impression Mass of the Neck

41 Excisional Biopsy Ref. 6

42 Mass of the Neck Excisional Biopsy Ref. 6

43 Mass of the Neck Excisional Biopsy Ref. 6

44 Mass of the Neck Excisional Biopsy Ref. 6

45 Pleomorphic adenoma Rt parotid gland Mass of the Neck Histopathological Diagnosis Ref. 2

46 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location Masses in median-paramedian region Submental lymph nodes: enlargement - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia : acute lymphadenitis - metastatic cervical node - lymphoma Epidermoid and dermoid cyst - Do not have tongue elevation Mass of specific location Masses in median-paramedian region Submental lymph nodes: enlargement - Infection: lymphoid hyperplasia : acute lymphadenitis - metastatic cervical node - lymphoma Epidermoid and dermoid cyst - Do not have tongue elevation Ref. 1 ( 重要 )

47 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location Masses in median-paramedian region Thyroid gland infection -thyroiditis Acute suppurative inflammation, iodine -Hasimoto’s disease Autoimmune disease, sensitive to its own thyroglobulin Mass of specific location Masses in median-paramedian region Thyroid gland infection -thyroiditis Acute suppurative inflammation, iodine -Hasimoto’s disease Autoimmune disease, sensitive to its own thyroglobulin Ref. 1

48 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location Masses in median-paramedian region Thyroglossal duct cyst -Arise from remnants of embryonic thyroglossal duct from tongue base to sternum -Upward thrust when protrude the tongue -Most commonly occurs below hyoid bone -Dome-shaped Mass of specific location Masses in median-paramedian region Thyroglossal duct cyst -Arise from remnants of embryonic thyroglossal duct from tongue base to sternum -Upward thrust when protrude the tongue -Most commonly occurs below hyoid bone -Dome-shaped ( 重要 ) Ref. 1

49 Mass of the Neck Mass of specific location Masses in median-paramedian region Riedel’s thyroiditis -A fixed & hard mass -Mimicking a malignancy Thyroid neoplasm (within thyroid gland) -Benign & malignant tumor -Cyst Mass of specific location Masses in median-paramedian region Riedel’s thyroiditis -A fixed & hard mass -Mimicking a malignancy Thyroid neoplasm (within thyroid gland) -Benign & malignant tumor -Cyst Ref. 1

50 Mass of the Neck D.D. of masses in median-paramedian region 6. Ectopic thyroid glandEctopic 1. Thyroglossal duct cyst 2. Epidermoid/dermoid cyst 3. Submental lymphadenitis 4. Submental abscess 5. Thyroid gland tumor Ref. 3

51 Mass of the Neck 6. Ectopic thyroid gland (Fig. below ). Ref. 7

52 Mass of the Neck 1. Intrathoracic goiter 2. Esophageal fibroma 4. Sarcoidosis 3. Metastatic carcinoma Lateral region (low-level) Ref. 3

53 Mass of the Neck 3. Carotid body tumor 4. Branchial cleft cyst (2nd arch) 5. Cystic hygroma 6. Neurofibroma 2. Sialadenitis 8. Hemangioma 1. Salivary gland tumor 7. Fibroma 9. Plunging ranula 10. Enlarged nodes Lateral region (high-level) Ref. 3

54 Cystic hygroma -developmental benign cystic dilation of lymphatic vein at variable ages after birth -occur at any points in neck from skull base down to mediastinum -enlarges at an alarming rate causing suffocation -fluid aspirated from the mass froths readily on agitation due to high fat content lymph fluid Cystic hygroma -developmental benign cystic dilation of lymphatic vein at variable ages after birth -occur at any points in neck from skull base down to mediastinum -enlarges at an alarming rate causing suffocation -fluid aspirated from the mass froths readily on agitation due to high fat content lymph fluid Mass of the Neck

55 A 26-year-old male presented with a 2-month history of a mildly painful, slow growing, nodular mass of the submental region. Extraoral examination revealed a 1.5  1.0-cm midline swelling of the submental region. The skin over the mass appeared normal. The mass was firm and slightly tender on palpation and appeared to be positioned within the submental space. Intraoral examination did not reveal any obvious pathologic findings and the nearby teeth showed no caries, periodontal disease, or mobility. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable. What is your differential diagnosis after studying this lecture? Ref. 8 Mass of the Neck

56 Summarie s 明白頸部腫脹之鑑別診 斷原理,並知道其中的 應用。


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