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Adult Neck Masses Justin Dumouchel 9/14/05.

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Presentation on theme: "Adult Neck Masses Justin Dumouchel 9/14/05."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adult Neck Masses Justin Dumouchel 9/14/05


3 Anatomy Anterior Triangle – middle of the neck, the sternocleidomastoid muscle and lower border of the mandible -submental triangle -submandibular triangle Posterior Triangle- sternocleidomastoid, the anterior border of the trapezius, and the middle third of the clavicle

4 Triangle Anatomy

5 Lymph Node Identification
Level 1 contains the submental and submandibular nodes. Level 2 is the upper third of the jugular nodes medial to the SCM, and the inferior boundary is the plane of the hyoid bone (clinical) or the bifurcation of the carotid artery (surgical). Level 3 describes the middle jugular nodes and is bounded inferiorly by the plane of the cricoid cartilage (clinical) or the omohyoid (surgical). Level 4 is defined superiorly by the omohyoid muscle and inferiorly by the clavicle. Level 5 contains the posterior cervical triangle nodes. Level 6 includes the paratracheal and pretracheal nodes.

6 Adults vs. Children Asymptomatic neck masses among adults older than 40 years old are considered malignant until proven otherwise. 80% of non-thyroid and non-salivary gland masses are neoplastic (80% of which are malignant) Children 90% of neck masses are benign

7 A – patient should be followed for an additional 2 weeks
60 yo male smoker presents with a unilateral, asymmetric nodular neck mass. His local PCP gave him a 2 week trial of antibiotics without effect. What should be done first? A – patient should be followed for an additional 2 weeks B – physical exam followed by FNA of the node C – open incisional biopsy D – schedule patient for modified neck dissection

8 Work up of Head and Neck Asymmetric, Unilateral “Nodal” mass
Physical exam and history Fine Needle Aspiration Imaging if FNA positive Panendoscopy with guided biopsy based on location of nodal mass Open biopsy with frozen sections if primary not found – neck dissection if warranted at that time TABLE WORKUP OF HEAD AND NECK ASYMMETRIC, UNILATERAL "NODAL" MASS1. Complete repeated physical examination of:Oral cavity Nasopharynx Hypopharynx Larynx Thyroid salivary glands Skin of head and neck2. Needle biopsy3. ImagingChestUpper aerodigestive tract/neck after FNA, if positive4. Panendoscopy with guided biopsy based on location of nodal massNasopharynxBase of tongueTonsillectomy5. Open biopsy of cervical mass with:Frozen section diagnosis if no primary foundEpidermoid carcinomas, melanoma, upper neck adenocarcinoma: simultaneous neck dissectionLymphoma: close and stage before radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or bothAdenocarcinoma: close; pursue primary lesion if supraclavicularGranuloma or inflammation: culture and close

9 Indications for FNA Progressively enlarging nodes
A single asymmetric node A persistent nodal mass without antecedent active signs of infection Actively infectious condition that do not respond to conventional antibiotics

10 Imaging techniques Radionucleotide scanning Sialography
Ultrasonography Arteriography CT and MRI imaging PET – not advocated at this time

11 Why should imaging occur prior to endoscopic guided biopsies in unknown neck mass?
Postoperative edema Cost To eliminate the need for endoscopy

12 Recommended biopsies for unknown primary tumor
Nasopharynx Tonsils – bilateral tonsillectomy Pyriform sinus Hypopharynx Postcricoid region Base of the tongue

13 Head and Neck Tumors Epithelial tumors
- Squamous cell carcinoma (11,000 new/yr) - Adenocarcinoma - Salivary Gland - Thyroid Melanoma Neuroepithelial tumors Connective Tissue tumors - lymphoma - sarcoma

14 Squamous cell carcinoma
T1 > 2 cm, T2 2 – 4 cm T3 > 4 cm T4 invasion of antrum N0 – no positive nodes N1 – single node < 3 cm N2a – single node 3 – 6 cm N2b – multiple homolateral nodes < 6 cm N2c – multiple bilateral nodes < 6 cm N Nodes > 6 cm M (distant metastasis) Stages I - T1M0N0 II – T2N0M0 III – T3N0M0 -- T1-3,N1M0 IV - T1-3,N2-3M0 T1-3N0-3M1

15 SCC Treatment strategies
Known primary SCC Chemotherapy – cisplatin and 5-FU Stage I – II -> radiotherapy or surgery Stage III – IV -> combined radiotherapy and surgery Unknown primary SCC N1-N2a - surgery or radiotherapy > N2a surgery and radiotherapy

16 The greatest morbidity following a radical neck dissection?
1) Lack of drainage of internal jugular vein 2) deficit of the sternocleidomastoid muscle 3) Accessory nerve deficit 4) Edema secondary to lymph node dissection RND -> excision of LN I – V with the addition of the SCM, ipsilateral IJV, and spinal accessory nerve

17 2) regional neck recurrence 3) distant metastasis 4) all of the above
If neck biopsy occurs prior to definitive treatment which of the outcomes are worse with metastatic cervical carcinoma? 1) wound necrosis 2) regional neck recurrence 3) distant metastasis 4) all of the above

18 Thyroid Carcinoma 15% of papillary carcinoma present with lymph node metastasis (80% of thyroid carcinoma) Investigate mass initially with FNA (then +/- thyroid scan and +/- ultrasound)

19 Salivary Neoplasms Benign: usually asymptomatic (common)
Malignant sx: pain, rapid growth, CN VII sxs, or skin fixation suggest malignancy Parotid most common and often benign Smaller glands are more likely malignant Definitive surgery should be performed at biopsy to prevent seeding of benign tumors.

20 Salivary Neoplasms Benign Pleomorphic adenoma – 65% of parotid tumors
Adenolymphoma (Warthin’s tumor) – 6 – 10% of parotid tumors (frequently bilateral) Malignant Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma – most common salivary gland malignancy

21 50 yo female presents with a pulsatile, compressible mass that refills rapidly on the release of pressure. Diagnosis? Carotid body tumor – originate from small chemoreceptive and baroreceptive organs located at the adventitia of the common carotid artery bifurcation. (paragangliomas)

22 1) single rapidly enlarging node
35 yo HIV+ patient presents with a tender neck node. When is it appropriate to biopsy a patient with AIDS? 1) single rapidly enlarging node 2) a newly tender node (suspect TB or Nocardia) 3) node that has enlarged concomitant with a change in the systemic systems, 4) a single enlarged (> 3 cm) node in a chain of nodes

23 Thank you

24 Current Residence Borwell 548

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