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Objectives Learn the UNITS command for drawing unit setup.Learn the UNITS command for drawing unit setup. Learn to input engineering, architectural, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives Learn the UNITS command for drawing unit setup.Learn the UNITS command for drawing unit setup. Learn to input engineering, architectural, and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Objectives Learn the UNITS command for drawing unit setup.Learn the UNITS command for drawing unit setup. Learn to input engineering, architectural, and metric units.Learn to input engineering, architectural, and metric units. Set up and determine limits for a given drawing. Set up and determine limits for a given drawing. Learn to scale a plotted drawing. Learn to scale a plotted drawing. Set up layers and assign colors and linetypes to them. Set up layers and assign colors and linetypes to them. Set up Grid, Snap, and Ortho modes based on the drawing requirements.Set up Grid, Snap, and Ortho modes based on the drawing requirements. Use Object Snaps and understand their applications.Use Object Snaps and understand their applications. Use Autotracking and Polar Tracking.Use Autotracking and Polar Tracking. Determine local (CELTSCALE), and global (LTSCALE) linetype scaling factor for plotting.Determine local (CELTSCALE), and global (LTSCALE) linetype scaling factor for plotting.

3 Drawing Units In AutoCAD, drawings should always be created full size; In AutoCAD, drawings should always be created full size; (1 unit in drawing = 1 unit on actual part)  Scaling only come into play when its time to plot to paper. Before you start a drawing, decide what value each drawing unit will represent based on what you plan to draw and what system of measurement you plan to use. Before you start a drawing, decide what value each drawing unit will represent based on what you plan to draw and what system of measurement you plan to use. Metric Ex: 1 unit = 1 mm on an actual part. Metric Ex: 1 unit = 1 mm on an actual part. Imperial Ex: 1 unit = 1 inch on an actual part. Imperial Ex: 1 unit = 1 inch on an actual part. The easiest way to set the system of units (Metric or Imperial) is at start up using Start From Scratch in the Start Up dialog box. The easiest way to set the system of units (Metric or Imperial) is at start up using Start From Scratch in the Start Up dialog box.

4 Drawing Units If you start a drawing in one system of measurement and then want to switch to another system, you need to resize all drawing objects by a conversion factor in order to obtain accurate dimensions that match the real object. If you start a drawing in one system of measurement and then want to switch to another system, you need to resize all drawing objects by a conversion factor in order to obtain accurate dimensions that match the real object. Ex: If you start a drawing in Imperial inches and want to work in Metric millimeters, resize all objects by a factor of The UNITS command controls the format of units in AutoCAD and determines; The UNITS command controls the format of units in AutoCAD and determines; How your coordinate and distance input is interpreted by AutoCad. How your coordinate and distance input is interpreted by AutoCad. What format for coordinate input is allowed. What format for coordinate input is allowed. How coordinates and distances are displayed. How coordinates and distances are displayed.

5 Units Format Units Command – sets the format for length and angle units in your drawing. Units Command – sets the format for length and angle units in your drawing. Command: UNITS Command: UNITS DD Menu: Format > Units DD Menu: Format > Units

6 Length Type: Length Type: Architectural27’-2 ¼” Architectural27’-2 ¼” Decimal Decimal Engineering27’-2.25” Engineering27’-2.25” Fractional 326 ¼ Fractional 326 ¼ Scientific3.2625E+02 Scientific3.2625E+02 For Scientific, Decimal, or Fractional, coordinates may be entered in any of these 3 formats but not Architectural or Engineering For Scientific, Decimal, or Fractional, coordinates may be entered in any of these 3 formats but not Architectural or Engineering Units Format (inch ” & feet ’ symbols not allowed). (inch ” & feet ’ symbols not allowed). If Architectural or Engineering are selected, coordinates may be entered in any format (the inch symbol ” is optional). If Architectural or Engineering are selected, coordinates may be entered in any format (the inch symbol ” is optional).

7 Units Format Inputting Architectural, Engineering, and Fractional Units: The input for these unit types is NOT the same as the format they are displayed by AutoCAD. The input for these unit types is NOT the same as the format they are displayed by AutoCAD. Examples: AutoCAD Standard Optional Display Input Input Architectural27’-2 ¼”27’2-1/4” 27’2-1/4 Architectural27’-2 ¼”27’2-1/4” 27’2-1/4 Engineering27’-2.25”27’2.25” 27’2.25 Engineering27’-2.25”27’2.25” 27’2.25 Fractional 326 ¼ 326-1/4 Fractional 326 ¼ 326-1/4 The inch symbol can be dropped; Numbers without foot symbol are assumed to be inches. The inch symbol can be dropped; Numbers without foot symbol are assumed to be inches / or

8 Units Format Length Precision: - determines number of decimal points or smallest fraction which is displayed. Length Precision: - determines number of decimal points or smallest fraction which is displayed.

9 Units Format Angle Type: Angle Type: Decimal Deg Decimal Deg Deg/Min/Sec34d30’0” Deg/Min/Sec34d30’0” Grads won’t use Grads won’t use Radians0.6021r Radians0.6021r Surveyor N34dE Surveyor N34dE Regardless of type selected, all formats may be ued for input. Requires using the appropriate suffix and symbols, or defaults to selected input method. Regardless of type selected, all formats may be ued for input. Requires using the appropriate suffix and symbols, or defaults to selected input method.

10 Units Format Angle Precision: - determines number of decimal points for displayed angles. Angle Precision: - determines number of decimal points for displayed angles.

11 Exercise 2 Set your units to a format that allows all unit types shown to be used for input (Architectural or Engineering). Draw the green objects. Hint: input for 5’-2 ¼” is 5’2-1/4” Hint: input for 5’-1.25” is 5’1.25 Global Coordinates (0,0)

12 Scaling CAD Drawings One more time…CAD drawings are always created full size! One more time…CAD drawings are always created full size! That means: Full Scale, Full Size, 1:1, 12”=1’, etc. However, to put your full size drawing on a sheet of paper requires scaling… As Part of Your Plot Routine! However, to put your full size drawing on a sheet of paper requires scaling… As Part of Your Plot Routine! The method we use for scaling is the easiest that I know. It requires making a title block border and using it as a gage to determine the proper plot scale. The method we use for scaling is the easiest that I know. It requires making a title block border and using it as a gage to determine the proper plot scale. To use this method requires 2 new commands: To use this method requires 2 new commands: DIST DIST SCALE SCALE

13 Preparation for Plotting to Scale 2 new commands required to plot a CAD drawing to scale. Distance Command – gives the distance between 2 points. Distance Command – gives the distance between 2 points. Command: DIST Specify first point: Specify second point: Distance = … Scale Command – changes the size of selected objects by a specified scale factor. Scale Command – changes the size of selected objects by a specified scale factor. Command: SCALE Select objects: pick objects to scale Specify base point: Specify scale factor or [Copy/Reference] : *Note: format and precision of DIST is controlled by UNITS command.

14 DEMO – DIST & SCALE Open new drawing. Open new drawing. Show DIST command. Show DIST command. Show SCALE command. Show SCALE command.

15 Exercise 3 Open a new drawing using Imperial units. Open a new drawing using Imperial units. The standard BTC border for an A-size sheet is 10” x 7.5”. Create a rectangle 10” long by 7.5” wide as shown in A. This will represent an A-size border. The standard BTC border for an A-size sheet is 10” x 7.5”. Create a rectangle 10” long by 7.5” wide as shown in A. This will represent an A-size border. Use the DIST command to verify the approximate length & width of your border. Use the DIST command to verify the approximate length & width of your border. Use the SCALE command to double the size of your rectangle as shown in B. Then verify the dimensions using the DIST command. Use the SCALE command to double the size of your rectangle as shown in B. Then verify the dimensions using the DIST command. 7 ½” 10” 20” 15” B A

16 End Lesson 12

17 Scaling CAD Drawings One more time…CAD drawings are always created full size! One more time…CAD drawings are always created full size! That means: Full Scale, Full Size, 1:1, 12”=1’, etc. However, to put your full size drawing on a sheet of paper requires scaling… As Part of Your Plot Routine! However, to put your full size drawing on a sheet of paper requires scaling… As Part of Your Plot Routine! General procedure for scaling a plot is the same regardless of drawing type, however there are slight differences for each of the following; General procedure for scaling a plot is the same regardless of drawing type, however there are slight differences for each of the following; Machine drawings in English Units Machine drawings in English Units Machine drawings in Metric Units Machine drawings in Metric Units Architectural drawings Architectural drawings

18 Scaling – English Units - Machine Method for Scaling: - The following method is the easiest I know. Step 1: Start a new drawing using Start from Scratch with Imperial units. Start a new drawing using Start from Scratch with Imperial units. Create your drawing Full Size using as many views as required. Create your drawing Full Size using as many views as required.

19 Step 2: Determine sheet size to use. Varies according to; Assigment instructions Physical size of part Assigment instructions Physical size of part Amount of detail on part Company standards Amount of detail on part Company standards Paper/plotter availability Etc. Paper/plotter availability Etc. Letter Sheet size size A8.5 x 11 B11 x 17 B11 x 17 C17 x 22 C17 x 22 D22 x 34 D22 x 34 E34 x 44 E34 x 44 U.S. Standard (in) BTC uses U.S. Standard lettered sheet sizes for all plots including metric Letter Sheet size size A4210 x 297 A4210 x 297 A3297 x 420 A3297 x 420 A2420 x 594 A2420 x 594 A1594 x 841 A1594 x 841 A0841 x 1189 A0841 x 1189 International (mm) Scaling – English Units - Machine

20 Step 3: In your drawing, generate a rectangular Border with dimensions equal to that of the Standard BTC title block border. BTC uses ½” border margins, so Border dimensions will be 1” smaller than sheet size. BTC uses ½” border margins, so Border dimensions will be 1” smaller than sheet size. Rectangle Border Dim: SizeA-SizeB-SizeSheet 8½ x x 17 Border 7½ x x 16 Scaling – English Units - Machine

21 Step 4: Estimate the Plot Scale. All plots must conform to a standard scale. All plots must conform to a standard scale. The following are some standard plot scales for an English (inch) machine drawing – remember this from drafting? The following are some standard plot scales for an English (inch) machine drawing – remember this from drafting? Use DIST to measure the length & width of your drawing. Then select a scale you think will fit the objects within the border. Use DIST to measure the length & width of your drawing. Then select a scale you think will fit the objects within the border Scaling – English Units - Machine

22 Step 4 Continued: Estimate the Plot Scale. If you forget the standard plot scales you can refer to the standard scales in the AutoCAD plot dialog box. If you forget the standard plot scales you can refer to the standard scales in the AutoCAD plot dialog box. Choose a plot scale that would reduce/enlarge your model so it fits within the full size border rectangle. Or start by choosing a plot scale closest to 1:1, either 1:2 to reduce the drawing or 2:1 to enlarge the drawing. Choose a plot scale that would reduce/enlarge your model so it fits within the full size border rectangle. Or start by choosing a plot scale closest to 1:1, either 1:2 to reduce the drawing or 2:1 to enlarge the drawing. Scaling – English Units - Machine

23 Example: Plot Scale is 1:2 Plot Scale Factor = 0.5 Example: Plot Scale is 4:1 Plot Scale Factor = 4 Plot Scale written A:B Plot Scale written A:B Plot Scale Factor is A / B Plot Scale Factor is A / B Step 5: Determine the Plot Scale Factor. Based on the Plot Scale you selected, calculate the Plot Scale Factor – remember this from drafting? Based on the Plot Scale you selected, calculate the Plot Scale Factor – remember this from drafting? Scaling – English Units - Machine

24 Step 6: Scale the border rectangle. Use the SCALE command to scale the border rectangle by the inverse of your Plot Scale Factor. Use the SCALE command to scale the border rectangle by the inverse of your Plot Scale Factor. Use the MOVE command to center the border around the drawing objects and see if sizing is acceptable. Use the MOVE command to center the border around the drawing objects and see if sizing is acceptable. The drawing objects should fill the border but allow a margin (i.e. at least ½” gap between border and objects on all sides). The drawing objects should fill the border but allow a margin (i.e. at least ½” gap between border and objects on all sides). If border sizing is correct you are ready to plot, skip to Step 9. Otherwise continue. If border sizing is correct you are ready to plot, skip to Step 9. Otherwise continue. Original Border Scaled Border 2X Original Plot Scale = 1:2 PSF = 1/2 Scaling – English Units - Machine

25 Step 7: If border sizing is unacceptable, the Plot Scale Factor must be recalculated: Choose the next closest Plot Scale to 1:1  Choose the next closest Plot Scale to 1:1  A:B = 1:4 or A:B = 4:1 A:B = 1:4 or A:B = 4:1 If the border must be increased: If the border must be increased: Choose plot scale A:B = 1:4 Choose plot scale A:B = 1:4 The Plot Scale Factor = A / B = 1/4 The Plot Scale Factor = A / B = 1/4 If the border must be reduced: If the border must be reduced: Choose plot scale A:B = 4:1 Choose plot scale A:B = 4:1 The Plot Scale Factor = A / B = 4 The Plot Scale Factor = A / B = 4 Scaling – English Units - Machine

26 Step 8: Re-Scale the border using the inverse of the new Plot Scale Factor. Then test to see if sizing is acceptable. Before re-scaling, the border must be returned to its original size: Before re-scaling, the border must be returned to its original size: SizeA-SizeB-Size Sheet 8½ x x 17 Border 7½ x x 16 Use SCALE command or Use SCALE command or Redraw original border rectangle Redraw original border rectangle The drawing objects should fill the border but allow a margin (i.e. at least ½” gap between border and objects on all sides). The drawing objects should fill the border but allow a margin (i.e. at least ½” gap between border and objects on all sides). If border sizing is correct you are ready to plot, continue to Step 9. Otherwise, return to Step 7 and repeat the procedure again using the next closest plot scale to 1:1. If border sizing is correct you are ready to plot, continue to Step 9. Otherwise, return to Step 7 and repeat the procedure again using the next closest plot scale to 1:1. Scaling – English Units - Machine

27 Step 9: Plot the drawing. The scaled border should be centered about your drawing. The scaled border should be centered about your drawing. Issue the PLOT command Issue the PLOT command Select a printer and the sheet size determined earlier. Select a printer and the sheet size determined earlier. What to Plot: Choose Window, then select diagonal corners on your border rectangle. Plot Offset: Check  the Center the Plot box Plot Scale: Uncheck Fit to Paper box, then choose the Plot Scale (PS) determined earlier. Plot Style : Choose Monochrome DO NOT click OK until results are verified with Preview button. DO NOT click OK until results are verified with Preview button. Retrieve your plot and Write the Plot Scale on the Sheet!!! Retrieve your plot and Write the Plot Scale on the Sheet!!! Scaling – English Units - Machine

28 Step 9: Plot the drawing. Scaling – English Units - Machine

29 Essence of Scaling Procedure: In essence, we are using the the border as a Scaling Gage to determine which standard plot scale makes our full size drawing fit onto the selected sheet size. In essence, we are using the the border as a Scaling Gage to determine which standard plot scale makes our full size drawing fit onto the selected sheet size. The original border size is designed to fit the physical paper sheet. The original border size is designed to fit the physical paper sheet. In the drawing, we scale the border with the SCALE command to fit the full size drawing using the inverse of a standard Plot Scale Factor. In the drawing, we scale the border with the SCALE command to fit the full size drawing using the inverse of a standard Plot Scale Factor. If the border fits, then the drawing is plotted at the selected Plot Scale and the border is scaled back down by the Plot Scale Factor in the plot routine, returning to its original size. If the border fits, then the drawing is plotted at the selected Plot Scale and the border is scaled back down by the Plot Scale Factor in the plot routine, returning to its original size. Scaling CAD Drawings

30 Essence of Scaling Procedure: Scaling CAD Drawings Scale border in drawing to fit full size objects  Use SCALE command at 1/Plot Scale Factor Original border (10x7½) Designed to fit 11x8½ sheet Re-Scale border & object by plotting  Use PLOT command at Plot Scale Factor - returns border to original size

31 DEMO – English Plot Scale Load file English Scale Demo.dwg. Load file English Scale Demo.dwg. Show use of DIST command. Show use of DIST command. Show methods for plotting to scale. Show methods for plotting to scale.

32 Exercise 4A: Create and plot the following drawing to scale (see steps 1-9). Step 1: Make the drawing using English units. Step 2: Assume sheet will be A-size. Step 3: Draw a border rectangle. Step 4: Estimate the Plot Scale. Step 5&6: Determine the Plot Scale Factor & scale the border. Step 7&8: If necessary, repeatedly recalculate Plot Scale Factor & re-scale border. Step 9: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale and Write the Scale on Your Plot! Step 10: Verify your plot size by measuring with a ruler.

33 End Lesson 13

34 Scaling CAD Drawings General procedure for scaling a plot is the same regardless of drawing type, however there are slight differences for each of the following; General procedure for scaling a plot is the same regardless of drawing type, however there are slight differences for each of the following; Machine drawings in English Units Machine drawings in English Units Machine drawings in Metric Units Machine drawings in Metric Units Architectural drawings Architectural drawings Next we look at the difference for a Machine drawing in Metric Units. Next we look at the difference for a Machine drawing in Metric Units.

35 Scaling – Metric Units Step 1: Start a new drawing using Start from Scratch with Metric units. Start a new drawing using Start from Scratch with Metric units. Create your drawing Full Size. Create your drawing Full Size.

36 Step 2: Determine sheet size to use. Varies according to; Assigment instructions Physical size of part Assigment instructions Physical size of part Amount of detail on part Company standards Amount of detail on part Company standards Paper/plotter availability Etc. Paper/plotter availability Etc. Scaling – Metric Units Letter Sheet size size A8.5 x 11 B11 x 17 B11 x 17 C17 x 22 C17 x 22 D22 x 34 D22 x 34 E34 x 44 E34 x 44 U.S. Standard (in) BTC uses U.S. Standard lettered sheet sizes for all plots including metric. Letter Sheet size size A4210 x 297 A4210 x 297 A3297 x 420 A3297 x 420 A2420 x 594 A2420 x 594 A1594 x 841 A1594 x 841 A0841 x 1189 A0841 x 1189 International (mm)

37 Step 3: In your drawing, generate a rectangular Border with dimensions equal to that of the Standard BTC title block border. Since you are working in mm, the border size must be converted to mm (1 inch = 25.4 mm). Since you are working in mm, the border size must be converted to mm (1 inch = 25.4 mm). BTC uses ½” border margins, so Border dimensions will be 1” smaller than sheet size  But in mm! BTC uses ½” border margins, so Border dimensions will be 1” smaller than sheet size  But in mm! Scaling – Metric Units Rectangle Border Dim: Size A-Size 8½” x 11” B-Size 11” x 17” EnglishBorder 10” x 7.5” 16” x 10” MetricBorder x 254 (mm) 254 x (mm)

38 Step 4: Estimate the Plot Scale  same as for English drawing. Step 5: Determine the Plot Scale Factor  same as for English drawing. Step 6: Scale the border rectangle by the inverse of the Plot Scale Factor  same as for English drawing. Step 7: If border scaling is incorrect, the Plot Scale Factor must be recalculated  same as for English drawing. Step 8: Re-Scale the border using the inverse of the new Plot Scale Factor. Then test to see if sizing is acceptable.  same as for English drawing. Scaling – Metric Units

39 Step 9: Plot the drawing same as for an English drawing except for the following: The sheet size may default to a metric sheet, but select a U.S. standard Letter sheet size (i.e. A-size: Letter or B-size: 11 x 17). The sheet size may default to a metric sheet, but select a U.S. standard Letter sheet size (i.e. A-size: Letter or B-size: 11 x 17). BEFORE setting the plot scale, use the down arrow to select mm rather than inches. Then select the plot scale (i.e. 1:4). BEFORE setting the plot scale, use the down arrow to select mm rather than inches. Then select the plot scale (i.e. 1:4). The dialog box should then show 1 mm = 4 units which is correct! The dialog box should then show 1 mm = 4 units which is correct! First: Select mm units Then: Set plot scale

40 DEMO – Metric Plot Scale Load file Metric Scale Demo.dwg. Load file Metric Scale Demo.dwg. Show methods for plotting to scale. Show methods for plotting to scale.

41 Exercise 4B: Create and plot the following drawing to scale (see steps 1-9). Step 1: Make the drawing using Metric units. Step 2: Assume sheet will be A-size. Step 3: Draw a border rectangle. Step 4: Estimate the Plot Scale. Step 5&6: Determine the Plot Scale Factor & scale the border. Step 7&8: If necessary, repeatedly recalculate Plot Scale Factor & re-scale border. Step 9: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale and Write the Scale on Your Plot! Step 10: Verify your plot size by measuring with a ruler.

42 Scaling CAD Drawings General procedure for scaling a plot is the same regardless of drawing type, however there are slight differences for each of the following; General procedure for scaling a plot is the same regardless of drawing type, however there are slight differences for each of the following; Machine drawings in English Units Machine drawings in English Units Machine drawings in Metric Units Machine drawings in Metric Units Architectural drawings Architectural drawings Next we look at the difference for an Architectural Drawing. Next we look at the difference for an Architectural Drawing.

43 Scaling – Architectural Units Step 1: Start new drawing using Start from Scratch with Imperial units. Start new drawing using Start from Scratch with Imperial units. Change your Units to Architectural format. Change your Units to Architectural format. Create your drawing Full Size. Create your drawing Full Size.

44 Step 2: Determine sheet size to use. Same as for English Machine drawing. Same as for English Machine drawing. Step 3: In your drawing, generate a rectangular Border with dimensions equal to that of the Standard BTC title block border. Same as for English Machine drawing. Same as for English Machine drawing. Scaling – Architectural Units SizeA-SizeB-Size Sheet 8½ x x 17 Border 7½ x x 16

45 Step 4: Estimate the Plot Scale. Architectural drawings must conform to a standard Architectural scale. Architectural drawings must conform to a standard Architectural scale. Below are some standard Architectural plot scales. Below are some standard Architectural plot scales. Use DIST to measure the length & width of your drawing. Then select a scale you think will fit the objects within the border. Use DIST to measure the length & width of your drawing. Then select a scale you think will fit the objects within the border. Scaling – English Units 31’-0” 21’-0”

46 Step 4 Continued: Estimate the Plot Scale. If you forget the standard plot scales you can refer to the standard scales in the AutoCAD plot dialog box. If you forget the standard plot scales you can refer to the standard scales in the AutoCAD plot dialog box. Guesstimate a plot scale that would reduce your model to fit within the full size border rectangle. Guesstimate a plot scale that would reduce your model to fit within the full size border rectangle. Scaling – English Units

47 Example: Plot Scale is 1/64” = 1’-0” Plot Scale Factor = (1/64) / 12 Plot Scale Factor = 1 / 768 Plot Scale written A:B Plot Scale written A:B Plot Scale Factor is A / B Plot Scale Factor is A / B Step 5: Determine the Plot Scale Factor. Based on the Plot Scale you selected, calculate the Plot Scale Factor. Based on the Plot Scale you selected, calculate the Plot Scale Factor. Example: Plot Scale is ¼” = 1’-0” Plot Scale Factor = (¼)/12 Plot Scale Factor = 1/48

48 Step 6: Scale the border rectangle by the inverse of the Plot Scale Factor  same as for English Machine drawing. Step 7: If border scaling is incorrect, the Plot Scale Factor must be recalculated  same as for English Machine drawing. Step 8: Re-Scale the border using the inverse of the new Plot Scale Factor. Then test to see if sizing is acceptable  same as for English Machine drawing. Step 9: Plot the drawing same as for English Machine drawing except choose the appropriate Architectural Scale in the form; A” = 1’-0” Scaling – Metric Units

49 DEMO – Architectural Plot Scale Load file Arch Scale Demo.dwg. Load file Arch Scale Demo.dwg. Show setting UNITS. Show setting UNITS. Show methods for plotting to scale. Show methods for plotting to scale.

50 Exercise 4B: Create and plot the following drawing to scale (see steps 1-9). Step 1: Make the drawing using Architectural units. Step 2: Assume sheet will be A-size. Step 3: Draw a border rectangle. Step 4: Estimate the Plot Scale. Step 5&6: Determine the Plot Scale Factor & scale the border. Step 7&8: If necessary, repeatedly recalculate Plot Scale Factor & re-scale border. Step 9: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale and Write the Scale on Your Plot! Step 10: Verify plot size by measuring with architectural scale.

51 End Lesson 14

52 Layers What are Layers? Layers are like overlaid sheets of transparent paper. Layers are like overlaid sheets of transparent paper. Each sheet may contain a different style of line with distinct color, line type, and thickness. Each sheet may contain a different style of line with distinct color, line type, and thickness. The sheets are perfectly aligned and each is given a name. The sheets are perfectly aligned and each is given a name. Individual layers can be turned on or off. When they are all on, the entire drawing is visible. Individual layers can be turned on or off. When they are all on, the entire drawing is visible.

53 DEMO: Show General Use of Layers. Show General Use of Layers. Show example using transparent overlay. Show example using transparent overlay. Open file Demo 1.dwg Open file Demo 1.dwg Show example in AutoCAD Show example in AutoCAD

54 Layers Why Use Layers? Each layer can be assigned a different color, linetype, and line width  helps visibility and clarifies the drawing for you. Each layer can be assigned a different color, linetype, and line width  helps visibility and clarifies the drawing for you. It is important to keep different line styles on different layers Alphabet of Lines (i.e. object, hidden lines, dimensions, etc). It is important to keep different line styles on different layers Alphabet of Lines (i.e. object, hidden lines, dimensions, etc). Layers help organize the drawing into manageable pieces. Layers help organize the drawing into manageable pieces. Layers can be turned on & off. Layers can be turned on & off. You can work on just the layer of interest. You can work on just the layer of interest. Use as a selection tool for editing operations. Use as a selection tool for editing operations. Plot only desired portions of drawing. Plot only desired portions of drawing. Layers can be locked to prevent accidental editing. Layers can be locked to prevent accidental editing.

55 Layers Creating Layers – several ways to create layers. Each brings up the Layers Properties Manager dialogue box. Command: LAYER Command: LAYER DD Menu: Format > Layer… DD Menu: Format > Layer… Toolbar: Layers Toolbar Toolbar: Layers Toolbar

56 Layers Layers Property Manager Dialogue Box.

57 Exercise 5: Turn on the Layers Toolbar and embed below the Standard Toolbar. Turn on the Layers Toolbar and embed below the Standard Toolbar. Keep this in your menu…you will use it often. Keep this in your menu…you will use it often.

58 Layers Things we need to learn about layers: Creating a new layer. Creating a new layer. A set-up routine which creates a new layer and provides a name to it. A set-up routine which creates a new layer and provides a name to it. Assigning properties to a layer. Assigning properties to a layer. Line type Line type Color Color Line weight Line weight Make a layer current (active). Make a layer current (active). All drawn entities are drawn on the current active layer. All drawn entities are drawn on the current active layer. The lines comprising the object inherit the properties of the current layer. The lines comprising the object inherit the properties of the current layer. Display of layers. Display of layers.

59 Layers Creating a new layer: Use Layer Properties Manager – access from Layers Toolbar or LAYERS command. Use Layer Properties Manager – access from Layers Toolbar or LAYERS command. Select New Layer button and provide a name. Select New Layer button and provide a name. Properties of new layer are inherited from the 0-layer or a highlighted layer. Properties of new layer are inherited from the 0-layer or a highlighted layer. Name easily edited. Name easily edited. To Delete a layer New Layer Button

60 DEMO: Open a new file Open a new file Show default layer (0) Show default layer (0) Open file Demo 1.dwg. Open file Demo 1.dwg. Show Creating a New Layer. Show Creating a New Layer. Show how new layer inherits properties from highlighted layer. Show how new layer inherits properties from highlighted layer. Show renaming layer. Show renaming layer. Open file Demo 2.dwg. Open file Demo 2.dwg. Show default layers (0, DEFPOINTS) Show default layers (0, DEFPOINTS) Create standard layer names. Create standard layer names.

61 Layers Assigning Layer Properties: Color - use BTC std. Color - use BTC std. Line type - use BTC std. Line type - use BTC std. Line weight - use BTC std. Line weight - use BTC std. Object Lines = 0.7” Object Lines = 0.7” Other Lines = 0.35” Other Lines = 0.35”

62 DEMO: Show Assigning Layer Properties. Show Assigning Layer Properties. Open file Demo 2.dwg. Open file Demo 2.dwg. Linetype Linetype Line Color Line Color Line Weight Line Weight

63 Layers Make Layer Current: Layer Properties Manager Layer Properties Manager Button Button Double-click name Double-click name Layer Control drop down box – select name Layer Control drop down box – select name

64 Layers Moving Objects Between Layers: Objects can be moved to a different layer; Objects can be moved to a different layer; Select objects in the graphics window. Select objects in the graphics window. Select layer name in the Layer Control drop down. Select layer name in the Layer Control drop down. Selected objects will be moved to layer name selected. Selected objects will be moved to layer name selected. Select Layer Name Objects moved to selected layer name

65 DEMO Show Moving Objects Between Layers. Show Moving Objects Between Layers. Open file Demo 2.dwg. Open file Demo 2.dwg. Current Layer: Current Layer: Make layer current Make layer current Create objects on layer Create objects on layer Move objects to correct layers. Move objects to correct layers.

66 Layers Controlling Layer Display: Layer Properties Manager Layer Properties Manager Layer control Drop Down Box. Layer control Drop Down Box. On/Off On/Off Freeze/Thaw All VP All VP Current VP Freeze/Thaw Current VP Freeze/Thaw Lock/Unlock Lock/Unlock Plot/No Plot – use Layer Properties Manager Plot/No Plot – use Layer Properties Manager

67 DEMO Making Layers Current and Display Options Making Layers Current and Display Options Open file Demo 2.dwg. Open file Demo 2.dwg. Display Options: Display Options: On/Off On/Off Freeze/Thaw Freeze/Thaw Lock/Unlock Lock/Unlock Plot/No Plot Plot/No Plot

68 Layers Most companies use standard layers that all employees and vendors are required to adhere to. Most companies use standard layers that all employees and vendors are required to adhere to. This makes drawings interchangable and easy to decipher. This makes drawings interchangable and easy to decipher. Likewise, BTC has its own standards to be used on ALL assignments as follows: Likewise, BTC has its own standards to be used on ALL assignments as follows:

69 Exercise 6: Set up the necessary layers for the drawing shown. Include line weights (thickness) according to alphabet of lines. Set up the necessary layers for the drawing shown. Include line weights (thickness) according to alphabet of lines. Red lines - Hidden lines mm. Red lines - Hidden lines mm. White lines - Object (visible) lines – 0.7 mm. White lines - Object (visible) lines – 0.7 mm. Yellow lines – Centerlines – 0.35 mm. Yellow lines – Centerlines – 0.35 mm. Complete the drawing. Complete the drawing. Don’t Draw Dimensions Grid Spacing = 1.0

70 End Lesson 15

71 Setting Limits Limits: - used to define the extent of the drawing area. Command: LIMITS Command: LIMITS Reset Model space limits: Specify lower left corner or [ON/OFF] : Specify upper right corner : The limits command is used in 2 ways; It defines the extent of the grid pattern activated by the GRID command. It defines the extent of the grid pattern activated by the GRID command. It determines the minimum area displayed by the ZOOM command with the ALL option. It determines the minimum area displayed by the ZOOM command with the ALL option.

72 Setting Limits Effective use of Limits: If you draw objects larger than your Limits, the zoom function is likely to freeze-up. You can correct this; If you draw objects larger than your Limits, the zoom function is likely to freeze-up. You can correct this; Reset your limits to a value larger than your largest expected object. Reset your limits to a value larger than your largest expected object. Issue ZOOM > ALL, this will zoom to your Limits or the current extent of your drawing (whichever is larger). Issue ZOOM > ALL, this will zoom to your Limits or the current extent of your drawing (whichever is larger). Limits can be reset at any time. If your drawing size increases, increase your limits to accommodate the new size. Limits can be reset at any time. If your drawing size increases, increase your limits to accommodate the new size.

73 Setting Limits Once your limits are set, the GRID command can be used to view the limits. Grid can be activated in several ways; Once your limits are set, the GRID command can be used to view the limits. Grid can be activated in several ways; Command: GRID Command: GRID Use the [F7] key as a Grid Toggle Use the [F7] key as a Grid Toggle Use the [GRID] Toggle button in the status bar menu (bottom of screen). Use the [GRID] Toggle button in the status bar menu (bottom of screen). Once the grid is activated, you should ZOOM > ALL to be sure the entire limits of the screen are displayed. Once the grid is activated, you should ZOOM > ALL to be sure the entire limits of the screen are displayed.

74 DEMO – Limits DEMO – Limits DEMO – Grid Spacing DEMO – Grid Spacing DD Menu: Tools > Drafting Settings DD Menu: Tools > Drafting Settings Command: GRID Command: GRID [GRID] toggle [GRID] toggle [F7] key [F7] key Right Click [GRID] Settings… Right Click [GRID] Settings… DEMO – Snap DEMO – Snap DD Menu: Tools > Drafting Settings DD Menu: Tools > Drafting Settings Command: SNAP Command: SNAP [SNAP] toggle [SNAP] toggle [F9] key [F9] key Right Click [SNAP] Settings… Right Click [SNAP] Settings… DEMO – GRID & SNAP

75 Exercise 7: Draw the following using ONLY snap and grid (no direct coordinate inputs allowed). Draw the following using ONLY snap and grid (no direct coordinate inputs allowed). If you finish early, create an OBJECT layer & CENTERLINE layer. Move all lines to the Object layer, and then create centerlines on the CENTER layer. If you finish early, create an OBJECT layer & CENTERLINE layer. Move all lines to the Object layer, and then create centerlines on the CENTER layer. Origin (0,0)

76 DEMO – Ortho Mode DEMO – Ortho Mode Command: ORTHO Command: ORTHO [ORTHO] [ORTHO] [F8] key [F8] key DEMO – ORTHO MODE

77 Origin (0,0) Exercise 8: Set your Units and Limits. Then draw the following using Ortho Mode and direct distance input. Wall thickness = 1’ Set your Units and Limits. Then draw the following using Ortho Mode and direct distance input. Wall thickness = 1’

78 Object Snap Object Snap – a method for “ snapping ” to points on previously defined geometry. Object Snap – a method for “ snapping ” to points on previously defined geometry. 3 methods to activate Object Snap “ on the fly ”. 3 methods to activate Object Snap “ on the fly ”. Select from Object Snap Toolbar. Select from Object Snap Toolbar. Type in Object Snap name abbreviation. Type in Object Snap name abbreviation. Hold [Shift] or [Ctrl] and right click mouse for shortcut. Hold [Shift] or [Ctrl] and right click mouse for shortcut. Object Snap Tool Bar Hurray! Finally something Really useful!

79 Exercise 9: Turn on the Object Snap Toolbar and embed it in a convenient place in the menu. Turn on the Object Snap Toolbar and embed it in a convenient place in the menu. Keep this in your menu…you will use it often. Keep this in your menu…you will use it often.

80 Object Snap Snap to ENDpoint – snaps to nearest endpoint of a line or arc. Snap to ENDpoint – snaps to nearest endpoint of a line or arc. Tip: Use Tool Tips to determine name of each icon.

81 Object Snap Snap to NEArest – snaps to a point on an object (line, circle, etc.) closest to the cursor crosshair. Snap to NEArest – snaps to a point on an object (line, circle, etc.) closest to the cursor crosshair.

82 End Lesson 16

83 Object Snap Snap to MIDpoint – snaps to midpoint of a line or arc. Snap to MIDpoint – snaps to midpoint of a line or arc.

84 Object Snap Snap to Mid Between 2 Points (MTP) – Snaps to midpoint between 2 selected points. Snap to Mid Between 2 Points (MTP) – Snaps to midpoint between 2 selected points. Not available on toolbar. Not available on toolbar. Requires multiple snap selection to select points to snap between. Requires multiple snap selection to select points to snap between. 2) End Point Snap 3) End Point Snap 1) Choose Mid Between 2 Points

85 Exercise 10: Create a new layer using default linetype and color yellow. Create a new layer using default linetype and color yellow. Create the yellow objects approximately as shown. Create the yellow objects approximately as shown. Create a new layer using default linetype and color magenta. Create a new layer using default linetype and color magenta. Use Osnap to create the magenta lines. Use Osnap to create the magenta lines. END MID MID END END NEA NEA MID Move the yellow line such that its midpoint is located half way between the arc endpoints (Hint: use Mid Between 2 Points). Move the yellow line such that its midpoint is located half way between the arc endpoints (Hint: use Mid Between 2 Points).

86 Object Snap Snap to TANgent – snaps to tangent of circle, arc or ellipse. Snap to TANgent – snaps to tangent of circle, arc or ellipse.

87 Object Snap Snap to CENter – snaps to center of circle, arc or ellipse. Snap to CENter – snaps to center of circle, arc or ellipse.

88 Object Snap Snap to INTersection – snaps to intersection or extended intersection of 2 objects. Snap to INTersection – snaps to intersection or extended intersection of 2 objects.

89 Object Snap Snap to APPArent Intersection – used for 3D applications - snaps to the apparent extended intersection point of 2 selected entities which don’t actually intersect (different Z-coordinates). Snap to APPArent Intersection – used for 3D applications - snaps to the apparent extended intersection point of 2 selected entities which don’t actually intersect (different Z-coordinates). Recommend you do not use this option!

90 Object Snap Snap to QUAdrant – snaps to quadrant point of circle, arc, or ellipse. Snap to QUAdrant – snaps to quadrant point of circle, arc, or ellipse.

91 Object Snap Snap to PERpendicular – snaps normal to a line or radially to an arc or circle. Snap to PERpendicular – snaps normal to a line or radially to an arc or circle.

92 Exercise 11: Draw the two circles first, the remaining white objects next, and the blue lines last. Use the Object Snaps indicated. Draw the two circles first, the remaining white objects next, and the blue lines last. Use the Object Snaps indicated. Grid spacing = 1”. arc radius

93 Object Snap Snap to NODe – snaps to a Point object. Snap to NODe – snaps to a Point object.

94 Object Snap Snap to INSertion – snaps to the insertion point of a Block, Text, Shape, or Attribute. Snap to INSertion – snaps to the insertion point of a Block, Text, Shape, or Attribute.

95 Object Snap Snap FROm – locates a point offset from a selected point. Offset must be specified by keyboard entry. Snap FROm – locates a point offset from a selected point. Offset must be specified by keyboard entry.

96 Object Snap Snap PARallel – assures line is drawn parallel to selected object. Briefly pause curser on line, then move cursor into parallel position. Snap PARallel – assures line is drawn parallel to selected object. Briefly pause curser on line, then move cursor into parallel position.

97 End Lesson 17

98 Object Snap Snap EXTension – locates a point on the extension path of a line or arc. Briefly pause curser on end of object to extend then move cursor into aligned position. Snap EXTension – locates a point on the extension path of a line or arc. Briefly pause curser on end of object to extend then move cursor into aligned position. Acquire multiple extensions to snap to the intersection of 2 extension paths. Acquire multiple extensions to snap to the intersection of 2 extension paths.

99 Object Snap Snap Temporary TRACKing – locates a point by temporary perpendicular tracking from a selected point. The X and Y coordinates from separate points can be acquired by successive selection of Temporary Tracking. Snap Temporary TRACKing – locates a point by temporary perpendicular tracking from a selected point. The X and Y coordinates from separate points can be acquired by successive selection of Temporary Tracking.

100 Exercise 12: Create the lines shown using keyboard entry and the coordinates provided. Create the lines shown using keyboard entry and the coordinates provided. (0,0) (2,0) (0,4) (2,5)(4,5) (2,3)(4,3) (6,4) (6,0)

101 Exercise 12: Complete the green lines using ONLY Osnap. No keyboard entry, no Ortho, no nothing else! (Hint: temporary tracking is required). Complete the green lines using ONLY Osnap. No keyboard entry, no Ortho, no nothing else! (Hint: temporary tracking is required). Mid MidMid Mid per per Mid per

102 Running Object Snap Running Object Snap – maintains activation of selected Osnaps. Running Object Snap – maintains activation of selected Osnaps. Command: OSNAP Command: OSNAP DDMenu: Tools > Drafting Setting… DDMenu: Tools > Drafting Setting… Right click on [OSNAP] Right click on [OSNAP] Just what you’ve been waiting for!!!

103 Running Object Snap Subtleties of Running Object Snap: Subtleties of Running Object Snap: Toggled on/off by [F3] or [OSNAP]. Toggled on/off by [F3] or [OSNAP]. An Osnap selected from the toolbar, shortcut menu, or typed abbreviation will over-ride all running Osnap settings. An Osnap selected from the toolbar, shortcut menu, or typed abbreviation will over-ride all running Osnap settings. [Tab] key allows cycling through running Osnap selections if more than one is activating. [Tab] key allows cycling through running Osnap selections if more than one is activating. Zooming will “refresh” all osnap selections and tracking patterns. Zooming will “refresh” all osnap selections and tracking patterns. Selecting too many Osnaps can cause confusion. Be selective and avoid Apparent Intersection. Selecting too many Osnaps can cause confusion. Be selective and avoid Apparent Intersection.

104 Auto-Tracking Q: What is Auto-Tracking? Q: What is Auto-Tracking? A: Method for locating points using temporarily displayed alignment paths based on set angles or positional relationship with selected objects. A: Method for locating points using temporarily displayed alignment paths based on set angles or positional relationship with selected objects. Two Types: Two Types: Polar Tracking – displays temporary alignment paths along angles that you specify. Angles are referenced from x-axis or from orientation of line (i.e. if an inclined line is selected by object snap, the angles can be referenced with respect to the inclined line). Polar Tracking – displays temporary alignment paths along angles that you specify. Angles are referenced from x-axis or from orientation of line (i.e. if an inclined line is selected by object snap, the angles can be referenced with respect to the inclined line). Object Snap Tracking – displays temporary alignment paths along  axes from selected points. Points are “acquired” by passing the cursor over the snap point, or removed by passing over the snap point a second time. Object Snap Tracking – displays temporary alignment paths along  axes from selected points. Points are “acquired” by passing the cursor over the snap point, or removed by passing over the snap point a second time.

105 Auto-Tracking Polar Tracking – Toggled on/off by [F10] or [POLAR]. Polar angle for alignment paths are specified in Drafting Settings dialogue box. Polar angle for alignment paths are specified in Drafting Settings dialogue box. DD Menu: Tools > Drafting Settings… Ortho Mode will be disabled when using Polar Snap Tracking and vice versa. Ortho Mode will be disabled when using Polar Snap Tracking and vice versa.

106 DEMO TRACKING: Open file Track_Demo.dwg Open file Track_Demo.dwg Show Polar Tracking. Show Polar Tracking. Show use of Polar Intersection. Show use of Polar Intersection. Show Additional Angles. Show Additional Angles.

107 Auto-Tracking Object Snap Tracking – Toggled on/off by [F11] or [OTRACK]. Alignment paths are acquired by “brushing” points on objects using object snap (object snap must be enabled to select the points). Alignment paths are acquired by “brushing” points on objects using object snap (object snap must be enabled to select the points). Points are selected by passing cursor over them without clicking the mouse. Points are selected by passing cursor over them without clicking the mouse. Alignment paths are orthogonal (parallel to X & Y axes). Alignment paths are orthogonal (parallel to X & Y axes). Successive points may be acquired to obtain multiple alignment paths. Successive points may be acquired to obtain multiple alignment paths. Points may be unselected by passing mouse over point again. Points may be unselected by passing mouse over point again.

108 DEMO TRACKING: Open file Track_Demo.dwg Open file Track_Demo.dwg Show Object Snap Tracking. Show Object Snap Tracking. Method for Multi-view drawing. Method for Multi-view drawing.

109 Exercise 12: Draw the following objects using ONLY mouse input and direct distance input (coordinate determined by cursor direction from last point and keyboard distance value ). Use Object Snap Tracking, and Polar Tracking to maintain point alignment. Draw the following objects using ONLY mouse input and direct distance input (coordinate determined by cursor direction from last point and keyboard distance value ). Use Object Snap Tracking, and Polar Tracking to maintain point alignment. 30 

110 End Lesson 18

111 [F1] - Help [F2] – Graphics Screen/Text Window [F3] – Running Osnap [F4][F5][F6] [F7] – Grid [F8] – Ortho [F9] – Snap [F10] – Polar Tracking [F11] – Object Snap Tracking Review of Function Keys Keyboard Template

112 Linetype Scaling Linetype Scaling: Command: LTSCALE Scales all linetypes globally (Default = 1.0). Scales all linetypes globally (Default = 1.0). Scales each segment in the linetype by the ltscale factor. Scales each segment in the linetype by the ltscale factor. Overall line length doesn’t change. Overall line length doesn’t change. Example: With LTSCALE = 0.5, Centerline shown in A will display as shown in B. Centerline ________ __ ________ __ ________ LTSCALE = 1 A Centerline ___ _ ____ _ ____ _ ____ _ ____ _ ___ B LTSCALE = 0.5

113 DEMO LTSCALE: Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Show use of LTSCALE Show use of LTSCALE

114 Linetype Scaling Linetype Scaling: Command: CELTSCALE Controls current linetype scaling (Default = 1.0). After CELTSCALE is set, all new lines will be scaled by this factor. Controls current linetype scaling (Default = 1.0). After CELTSCALE is set, all new lines will be scaled by this factor. Lines affected by CELTSCALE are also affected by LTSCALE. The two are multiplied to give final linetype scale. Lines affected by CELTSCALE are also affected by LTSCALE. The two are multiplied to give final linetype scale.

115 DEMO LTSCALE: Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Show use of CELTSCALE Show use of CELTSCALE

116 Linetype Scaling Linetype Scaling: Command: CELTSCALE Value of CELTSCALE for individual objects may be altered after line creation using the PROPERTIES command. Value of CELTSCALE for individual objects may be altered after line creation using the PROPERTIES command. PROPERTIES is accessed thru the shortcut menu. PROPERTIES is accessed thru the shortcut menu. This variable is changed by the CELTSCALE command

117 DEMO LTSCALE: Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Show use of PROPERTIES for setting CELTSCALE. Show use of PROPERTIES for setting CELTSCALE.

118 Linetype Scaling As you know from Drafting, each linetype consists of patterned segments of defined length. As you know from Drafting, each linetype consists of patterned segments of defined length. To maintain correct segment lengths on printed output, the linetypes should be scaled if the plot requires scaling. To maintain correct segment lengths on printed output, the linetypes should be scaled if the plot requires scaling. If the plot scale is 1:4 (scale factor of ¼), the linetypes should be scaled by the inverse of the scale factor (or 4). If the plot scale is 1:4 (scale factor of ¼), the linetypes should be scaled by the inverse of the scale factor (or 4). A larger linetype scale factor increases segment length. A smaller linetype scale factor reduces segment length. A larger linetype scale factor increases segment length. A smaller linetype scale factor reduces segment length. Rule of thumb: Linetype Scale Factor = 1 / (plot scale factor)

119 Linetype Scaling Example: Required space for full size drawing is 5 x Decide on A-size sheet (11x8.5) using 2:1 scale. Prior to plotting, set LTSCALE to 0.5 to get correct plotted line segments.

120 DEMO LTSCALE: Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Show use of LTSCALE, CELTSCALE, and PROPERTIES for setting linetype scale for different size drawings. Show use of LTSCALE, CELTSCALE, and PROPERTIES for setting linetype scale for different size drawings.

121 Three ways to get this: Three ways to get this: Use the CELTSCALE to control linetype scaling during line creation. Use the CELTSCALE to control linetype scaling during line creation. Use PROPERTIES to change CELTSCALE variable for existing objects. Use PROPERTIES to change CELTSCALE variable for existing objects. Use Alternate Linetypes having similar patterns but different segment lengths (i.e. Center, Center2, Centerx2) Use Alternate Linetypes having similar patterns but different segment lengths (i.e. Center, Center2, Centerx2) Linetype Scaling Alternate Linetypes: LTSCALE acts globally and affects all linetypes. LTSCALE acts globally and affects all linetypes. What if you want short lines to have short segment lengths and long lines to have long segment lengths? What if you want short lines to have short segment lengths and long lines to have long segment lengths? CELTSCALE command changes this variable.

122 Linetype Scaling Example: Alternate Linetypes Example: Alternate Linetypes Original Linetype Alternate Linetype Use this for short lines. Use this for long lines. CENTERX2CENTER Short Segments Standard Long Segments CENTER2CENTERCENTERX2 HIDDEN2HIDDENHIDDENX2 PHANTOM2PHANTOMPHANTOMX2

123 DEMO LTSCALE: Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Open file LTSCALE_Demo.dwg Show use of Alternate LineTypes Show use of Alternate LineTypes

124 Chapter 4 – The End!

125 RETIRED MATERIAL

126 Units Format Sign of Angle: - by default, AutoCAD assumes a Counterclockwise rotation is Positive. To reverse this, check the Clockwise box. Sign of Angle: - by default, AutoCAD assumes a Counterclockwise rotation is Positive. To reverse this, check the Clockwise box. Base Angle: - assumed to be from +X-axis. Use Direction to change this (see next slide). Base Angle: - assumed to be from +X-axis. Use Direction to change this (see next slide). ?

127 Units Format Base Angle: - the Base angle reference is designated according to compass headings. The default setting is East which assumes measurement from pos. X-axis. This can be changed using Direction Control Dialogue Box. Base Angle: - the Base angle reference is designated according to compass headings. The default setting is East which assumes measurement from pos. X-axis. This can be changed using Direction Control Dialogue Box. X Y

128 Open a new drawing file with English (Imperial) Units. Open a new drawing file with English (Imperial) Units. Set the Units to Decimal with a precision of 0.0. Set the Units to Decimal with a precision of 0.0. Set the Angle to decimal with a precision of 0. Set the Angle to decimal with a precision of 0. Set the angle to CLOCKWISE and set the Base angle direction to North. Set the angle to CLOCKWISE and set the Base angle direction to North. Create the drawing shown using Polar Coordinates and Keyboard entry ONLY! Create the drawing shown using Polar Coordinates and Keyboard entry ONLY! When finished, be sure to return the angle settings back to the defaults: When finished, be sure to return the angle settings back to the defaults: Exercise 1: Base Angle = East + Angle = Counter Clockwise Start Point (0,0) 30º

129 Setting Limits Limits: - the user defined extent for the drawing area. The limits command is used in several ways; The limits command is used in several ways; It defines the extent of the grid pattern activated by the GRID command. It defines the extent of the grid pattern activated by the GRID command. It determines the minimum area displayed by the ZOOM, ALL command. It determines the minimum area displayed by the ZOOM, ALL command. It can also be used as the defined plot region in the PLOT command. It can also be used as the defined plot region in the PLOT command. Additional functionality for Limits; Additional functionality for Limits; If Limits is set to ON, AutoCAD won’t allow a coordinate to be specified outside the defined limits. If Limits is set to ON, AutoCAD won’t allow a coordinate to be specified outside the defined limits.

130 Setting Limits Limits: In AutoCAD, like most CAD programs, objects are drawn full size. In AutoCAD, like most CAD programs, objects are drawn full size. Scaling doesn’t occur until you are ready to print on to a sheet of paper. Scaling doesn’t occur until you are ready to print on to a sheet of paper. Limits should be set to accommodate the full size drawing. Limits should be set to accommodate the full size drawing. Default limits in AutoCAD are; Default limits in AutoCAD are; Imperial: 12.0 x 9.0 inches Imperial: 12.0 x 9.0 inches Metric:420 x 297 mm Metric:420 x 297 mm

131 Setting Limits Setting Limits: Command: LIMITS Command: LIMITS DD Menu: Format > Drawing Limits DD Menu: Format > Drawing Limits Command: LIMITS Command: LIMITS Reset Model space limits: Specify lower left corner or [ON/OFF] : Specify upper right corner :

132 Setting Limits Once your limits are set, the GRID command can be used to view the limits. Grid can be activated in several ways; Once your limits are set, the GRID command can be used to view the limits. Grid can be activated in several ways; Command: GRID Command: GRID Use the [F7] key as a Grid Toggle Use the [F7] key as a Grid Toggle Use the [GRID] Toggle button in the status bar menu (bottom of screen). Use the [GRID] Toggle button in the status bar menu (bottom of screen). Once the grid is activated, you should ZOOM > ALL to be sure the entire limits of the screen are displayed. Once the grid is activated, you should ZOOM > ALL to be sure the entire limits of the screen are displayed. *Important – the end grid points will not necessarily align with the boundary of your limits definition. Grid points always fall at fixed increments that you define and always lie within, or possibly on, the limits boundary. *Important – the end grid points will not necessarily align with the boundary of your limits definition. Grid points always fall at fixed increments that you define and always lie within, or possibly on, the limits boundary.

133 Setting Limits Effective use of Limits: If you draw objects larger than your Limits, the zoom function is likely to freeze-up. You can correct this; If you draw objects larger than your Limits, the zoom function is likely to freeze-up. You can correct this; Reset your limits to a value larger than your largest object. Reset your limits to a value larger than your largest object. Issue ZOOM > ALL, this will zoom to your Limits or the current extent of your drawing (whichever is larger). Issue ZOOM > ALL, this will zoom to your Limits or the current extent of your drawing (whichever is larger). Toggle on Grid to verify Limits (reset grid spacing if necessary). Toggle on Grid to verify Limits (reset grid spacing if necessary). Limits can be reset at any time. If your drawing size increases, increase your limits to accommodate the new size. Limits can be reset at any time. If your drawing size increases, increase your limits to accommodate the new size.

134 DEMO Show use of LIMITS command. Show use of LIMITS command. Open new drawing file. Open new drawing file. Command: LIMITS Command: LIMITS DDMenu: Format > Drawing Limits DDMenu: Format > Drawing Limits Show activation of grid. Show activation of grid. Command: GRID Command: GRID [F7] key [F7] key [GRID] toggle button [GRID] toggle button Grid too dense Grid too dense Show Zoom, ALL Show Zoom, ALL Turn LIMITS ON Turn LIMITS ON

135 Exercise 3: Open a New file using Start from Scratch with Imperial (English) units. Open a New file using Start from Scratch with Imperial (English) units. Use the LIMITS command to check your current limits setting. Use the LIMITS command to check your current limits setting. Activate GRID to view your current limits. Activate GRID to view your current limits. Draw a line from (0, 0) to (450, 250), then use the scroll wheel on your mouse to try and zoom way out…Lock-Up! Draw a line from (0, 0) to (450, 250), then use the scroll wheel on your mouse to try and zoom way out…Lock-Up! Turn off the grid, then use ZOOM > ALL to view the entire line. Turn off the grid, then use ZOOM > ALL to view the entire line. Reset your limits to 500 x 300. Reset your limits to 500 x 300. Turn the grid back on…Too Dense! Change the grid spacing from 0.5 to Turn the grid back on…Too Dense! Change the grid spacing from 0.5 to Delete the line and reset your limits to 12 x 9. Then ZOOM > ALL. Delete the line and reset your limits to 12 x 9. Then ZOOM > ALL. Finally, reset the grid spacing back to a reasonable value. Finally, reset the grid spacing back to a reasonable value.

136 Setting Limits Effective use of Limits: - Before attempting any drawing, the Limits of the drawing should be calculated. Effective use of Limits: - Before attempting any drawing, the Limits of the drawing should be calculated. This is where you get to use your sketching skills. This is where you get to use your sketching skills. Step 1: Identify the size extents of the object you are going to draw (height, width, depth) Step 1: Identify the size extents of the object you are going to draw (height, width, depth) Step 2: Sketch a layout of the various views to be included and identify the overall width and height required. This should include space between views, room for dimensions, and edge margins. Step 2: Sketch a layout of the various views to be included and identify the overall width and height required. This should include space between views, room for dimensions, and edge margins. Step 3: Knowing the space (width and height) required, determine what size paper sheet will be used to print (A, B, etc). Obviously scaling may be required for larger or smaller objects. Note the scale factor required. Step 3: Knowing the space (width and height) required, determine what size paper sheet will be used to print (A, B, etc). Obviously scaling may be required for larger or smaller objects. Note the scale factor required.

137 Setting Limits Step 4: Knowing the paper size, find the printable area of the sheet (use Printable Area under PLOT command) Step 4: Knowing the paper size, find the printable area of the sheet (use Printable Area under PLOT command) Step 5: If the drawing will be full scale (1:1) the limits will equal the Printable Area. If the drawing will be scaled to plot, divide the length and width of the printable area by the scale factor i.e. if scale factor is ½ (1:2), then divide by ½ (or multiply by 2). These are the limits. Step 5: If the drawing will be full scale (1:1) the limits will equal the Printable Area. If the drawing will be scaled to plot, divide the length and width of the printable area by the scale factor i.e. if scale factor is ½ (1:2), then divide by ½ (or multiply by 2). These are the limits. Step 6: Input the limits for the drawing. Then make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. This is the printable area which will be plotted at the appropriate scale. Step 6: Input the limits for the drawing. Then make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. This is the printable area which will be plotted at the appropriate scale. Step 7: Create your drawing using the rectangle as a guideline for the drawing boundaries. Step 7: Create your drawing using the rectangle as a guideline for the drawing boundaries. Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale. Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale.

138 Setting Limits Review – Standard Sheet Sizes Review – Standard Sheet Sizes Letter Sheet size size A8.5 x 11 B11 x 17 C17 x 22 D22 x 34 E34 x 44 Letter Sheet size size A4210 x 297 A3297 x 420 A2420 x 594 A1594 x 841 A0841 x 1189 U.S. Standard International Standard

139 Setting Limits Review – Standard Scales Review – Standard Scales Example: if the scale is 1 : 8 1/8 : 8/8 1/8 : 8/8 1/8 : 1 1/8 : 1 The scale factor is 1/8 The scale factor is 1/8 Example: if the scale is ¼” = 1’-0 ¼” = 12” ¼” = 12” ¼ : 12 ¼ : 12 1/48 : 1 1/48 : 1 The scale factor is 1/48 The scale factor is 1/48 *Note: ¼”=1’-0 should be shown on drawing

140 Method for Scaling: The next 2 steps require you to resize and move the border so it fits around the drawing objects  SCALE command. The next 2 steps require you to resize and move the border so it fits around the drawing objects  SCALE command. Command: SCALE Select objects: select border rectangle Specify base point: select any point near rect. corner Specify scale factor or [Reference]: input BSF Border small compared to object  scale up border. Border small compared to object  scale up border. Border Scale Factor (BSF) > 1 Border large compared to object  scale down border. Border large compared to object  scale down border. Border Scale Factor (BSF) < 1 Scaling – English Units Never scale the drawing objects!

141 Method for Scaling: The next 2 steps require you to resize and move the standard border so it fits around the drawing objects. The next 2 steps require you to resize and move the standard border so it fits around the drawing objects. Use the SCALE command to resize the border and MOVE command to center the border around the drawing objects. Use the SCALE command to resize the border and MOVE command to center the border around the drawing objects. We will refer to the border size increase or decrease as the Border Scale Factor (BSF). We will refer to the border size increase or decrease as the Border Scale Factor (BSF). Border small compared to object  scale up border. Border small compared to object  scale up border. Border Scale Factor (BSF) > 1 Border large compared to object  scale down border. Border large compared to object  scale down border. Border Scale Factor (BSF) < 1 Scaling – English Units Never scale the drawing objects!

142 Scaling – English Units Review: Standard Plot Scales (English Machine Drawings) Standard Plot Scales (English Machine Drawings) Scale Factors Scale Factors Example: Plot Scale is 1:8 Plot Scale Factor = 1/8 Example: Plot Scale is 4:1 Plot Scale Factor = 4 Plot Scale written A:B Plot Scale written A:B Plot Scale Factor is A / B Plot Scale Factor is A / B

143 Step 4: Determine the Border Scale Factor (BSF). The Border Scale Factor (BSF) must be calculated based on Standard Plot Scales. Refer to the standard scales in the AutoCAD plot dialog box. The Border Scale Factor (BSF) must be calculated based on Standard Plot Scales. Refer to the standard scales in the AutoCAD plot dialog box. Choose a plot scale that would reduce/enlarge your model so it fits within the full size border rectangle. Or start by choosing a plot scale closest to 1:1, either A:B = 1:2 or A:B = 2:1 Choose a plot scale that would reduce/enlarge your model so it fits within the full size border rectangle. Or start by choosing a plot scale closest to 1:1, either A:B = 1:2 or A:B = 2:1 Scaling – English Units

144 Step 4: Determine the Border Scale Factor (BSF). The Border Scale Factor (BSF) is the inverse of the Plot Scale Factor (PSF) The Border Scale Factor (BSF) is the inverse of the Plot Scale Factor (PSF) If the border must be increased: If the border must be increased: Choose Plot Scale A:B = 1:2 Choose Plot Scale A:B = 1:2 The Plot Scale Factor (PSF) = A / B = 1/2 The Plot Scale Factor (PSF) = A / B = 1/2 The Border Scale Factor (BSF) = B / A = 2 The Border Scale Factor (BSF) = B / A = 2 If the border must be reduced: If the border must be reduced: Choose Plot Scale A:B = 2:1 Choose Plot Scale A:B = 2:1 The Plot Scale Factor (PSF) = A / B = 2 The Plot Scale Factor (PSF) = A / B = 2 The Border Scale Factor (BSF) = B / A = 1/2 The Border Scale Factor (BSF) = B / A = 1/2 Scaling – English Units

145 Step 5: Scale the border using the calculated Border Scale Factor (BSF). Then test to see if sizing is acceptable. Scaling – English Units The drawing objects should fill the border but allow a margin (i.e. at least ½” gap between border and objects on all sides). The drawing objects should fill the border but allow a margin (i.e. at least ½” gap between border and objects on all sides). If border sizing is correct you are ready to plot, skip to Step 8. Otherwise continue. If border sizing is correct you are ready to plot, skip to Step 8. Otherwise continue. Original Border Scaled Border Plot Scale = 1:2 PSF = 1/2 BSF = 2

146 Step 6: If border scaling is incorrect, the Border Scale Factor (BSF) must be recalculated: Choose the next closest Plot Scale to 1:1  Choose the next closest Plot Scale to 1:1  A:B = 1:4 or A:B = 4:1 A:B = 1:4 or A:B = 4:1 If the border must be increased: If the border must be increased: Choose plot scale A:B = 1:4 Choose plot scale A:B = 1:4 The Plot Scale Factor (PSF) = A / B = 1/4 The Plot Scale Factor (PSF) = A / B = 1/4 The Border Scale Factor (BSF) = B / A = 4 The Border Scale Factor (BSF) = B / A = 4 If the border must be reduced: If the border must be reduced: Choose plot scale A:B = 4:1 Choose plot scale A:B = 4:1 The Plot Scale Factor (PSF) = A / B = 4 The Plot Scale Factor (PSF) = A / B = 4 The Border Scale Factor (BSF) = B / A = 1/4 The Border Scale Factor (BSF) = B / A = 1/4 Scaling – English Units

147 Step 7: Re-Scale the border using the new Border Scale Factor (BSF). Then test to see if sizing is acceptable. Scaling – English Units Before re-scaling, the border must be returned to its original size: Before re-scaling, the border must be returned to its original size: SizeA-SizeB-Size Sheet 8½ x x 17 Border 7½ x x 16 Use SCALE command or Use SCALE command or Redraw original border rectangle Redraw original border rectangle The drawing objects should fill the border but allow a margin (i.e. at least ½” gap between border and objects on all sides). The drawing objects should fill the border but allow a margin (i.e. at least ½” gap between border and objects on all sides). If border sizing is correct you are ready to plot, continue to Step 8. Otherwise, return to Step 6 and repeat the procedure again using the next closest plot scale to 1:1. If border sizing is correct you are ready to plot, continue to Step 8. Otherwise, return to Step 6 and repeat the procedure again using the next closest plot scale to 1:1.

148 DEMO - Limits Load file Limits Demo.dwg. Load file Limits Demo.dwg. Show use of DIST command. Show use of DIST command. Show method for finding printable area. Show method for finding printable area. Show method for defining limits. Show method for defining limits. Show methods for plotting to scale. Show methods for plotting to scale.

149 Setting Limits Slow Motion Replay: Step 1: Identify the size extents of the object you are going to draw (height, width, depth) Step 1: Identify the size extents of the object you are going to draw (height, width, depth)

150 Setting Limits Step 2: Sketch a layout of the various views to be included and identify the overall width and height required. Step 2: Sketch a layout of the various views to be included and identify the overall width and height required. This should include space between views, room for dimensions, and edge margins. Size Requirements: Width = 20.0” Height = 14.0”

151 Setting Limits Step 3: Knowing the size (width and height) required, determine what size paper sheet will be used to print (A, B, etc). Obviously scaling may be required for larger or smaller objects. Note the scale factor required. Step 3: Knowing the size (width and height) required, determine what size paper sheet will be used to print (A, B, etc). Obviously scaling may be required for larger or smaller objects. Note the scale factor required. Requred size for full size object = 20” x 14” Sheet size “A” = 11” x 8.5” Try plot scale = 1:2 Plotted drawing will then require 10”x7”: ½ x 20” = 10” ½ x 14” = 7”

152 Setting Limits Step 4: Knowing the paper size, find the printable area on the sheet (use Printable Area under PLOT command) Step 4: Knowing the paper size, find the printable area on the sheet (use Printable Area under PLOT command) x 7.94 printable area.

153 Setting Limits Step 5: If the drawing will be full scale (1:1) the limits equal the printable area. If the drawing will be scaled to plot, divide the length and width of the printable area by the scale factor i.e. if scale factor is ½ (1:2), then divide by ½ (or multiply by 2). These are the limits Step 5: If the drawing will be full scale (1:1) the limits equal the printable area. If the drawing will be scaled to plot, divide the length and width of the printable area by the scale factor i.e. if scale factor is ½ (1:2), then divide by ½ (or multiply by 2). These are the limits Scale: 1:2 Scale factor = ½ Required space for full size drawing = 20 x14 Sheet Size = “A” = 8.5 x 11 Printable Area = x 7.94 X - Limit = x 2 = Y - Limit = 7.94 x 2 = *NOTE – The book suggests limits based on paper sizes. These are not accurate since not based on Printable Area.

154 Setting Limits Step 6: Input the limits for the drawing. Then make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. This is the printable area which will be plotted at the appropriate scale. Step 6: Input the limits for the drawing. Then make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. This is the printable area which will be plotted at the appropriate scale. Scale: 1:2 full size drawing = 20 x14 Sheet Size = “A” = 8.5 x 11 Printable Area = x 7.94 X - Limit = x 2 = Y - Limit = 7.94 x 2 = 15.88

155 Setting Limits Step 7: Create your drawing using the rectangle as a guideline for the drawing boundaries. Step 7: Create your drawing using the rectangle as a guideline for the drawing boundaries. Limits Rectangle Object Boundary with Margins

156 Setting Limits Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale. You can use Limits for the Plot Area or use Window and select the corners of the rectangle representing the Limits. Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale. You can use Limits for the Plot Area or use Window and select the corners of the rectangle representing the Limits.

157 Exercise 3: Perform the setup required to make the following drawing (see steps 1-8). Perform the setup required to make the following drawing (see steps 1-8). Assume single view will be used, only draw boundary walls (31”x21”) i.e. neglect the interior walls, etc. Assume single view will be used, only draw boundary walls (31”x21”) i.e. neglect the interior walls, etc. Assume sheet will be A-size. Assume sheet will be A-size. Step 1: Identify drawing view size (height, width). Step 1: Identify drawing view size (height, width). Step 2: Identify the overall width and height required (include 1” margins). Step 2: Identify the overall width and height required (include 1” margins). Step 3: Determine paper size (A-size), and scale (you can figure this out). Step 3: Determine paper size (A-size), and scale (you can figure this out). Step 4: Find printable area of sheet. Step 4: Find printable area of sheet. Step 5: Calculate and set the limits from printable area and scale. Step 5: Calculate and set the limits from printable area and scale. Step 6: Make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. Step 6: Make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. Step 7: Create your drawing. Step 7: Create your drawing. Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale. Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale.

158 Exercise 3: Solution Step 1: Identify view size (height, width). (31” x 21”) Step 1: Identify view size (height, width). (31” x 21”) Step 2: Identify the overall width and height required (include 1” margins). Step 2: Identify the overall width and height required (include 1” margins). (33” x 23”) Step 3: Determine paper size, and scale. 33”/4 = 8.25” 23”/4 = 5.75” OK Step 3: Determine paper size, and scale. 33”/4 = 8.25” 23”/4 = 5.75” OK A-Size sheet = 11” x 8.5” Scale = 1:4 Step 4: Find printable area of sheet. Step 4: Find printable area of sheet ” x 7.94” Step 5: Calculate the limits from printable area and scale. Step 5: Calculate the limits from printable area and scale ”x4 = 41.52” 7.94”x4 = 31.76” Step 6: Make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. Step 6: Make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. Step 7: Create your drawing. Step 7: Create your drawing. Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale. Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale. Limits rectangle (41.52 x 31.76)

159 Exercise 4: Consider the following part. You are to make a multiview drawing (3 views – Front, Top, Right Side) of the part using the correct use of Units and Limits. The drawing should be plotted on an A-size sheet. Allow at least 1” margins and 2” between views. Consider the following part. You are to make a multiview drawing (3 views – Front, Top, Right Side) of the part using the correct use of Units and Limits. The drawing should be plotted on an A-size sheet. Allow at least 1” margins and 2” between views.

160 Exercise 4: 3 views – Front, Top, Right Side 3 views – Front, Top, Right Side A-Size sheet A-Size sheet Step 1: Identify the size of the object (height, width, depth) Step 1: Identify the size of the object (height, width, depth) Step 2: Sketch a layout of the views to be included and identify the overall width and height required. Step 2: Sketch a layout of the views to be included and identify the overall width and height required. Step 3: Determine paper size, and scale. Step 3: Determine paper size, and scale. Step 4: Find printable area of sheet. Step 4: Find printable area of sheet. Step 5: Calculate the limits from printable area and scale. Step 5: Calculate the limits from printable area and scale. Step 6: Make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. Step 6: Make a rectangle corresponding to the limits. Step 7: Create your drawing. Step 7: Create your drawing. Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale. Step 8: Plot your drawing to the appropriate scale.


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