Presentation on theme: "Classification The evolution of Complexity:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Classification The evolution of Complexity: single cell prokaryote to multicellular eukaryotes
2 Aristotle to LinneausTaxonomy- classifying organisms, by placing them into taxaBinomial nomenclature is the system of assigning a scientific name to each species. Made up of genus and species.Canis lupus, Turdis migratoris, Felis catusSystematics- the study of biodiversity and its classification, create phylogeniesPhylogeny- an organism’s evolutionary history, a phylogenetic tree
3 Modern Classification System 3 Domains6 KingdomsPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies3 DomainArchea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya6 KingdomArcheabacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plant, AnimalGenus First part of Scientific nameSpecies Second part of Scientific name
4 The Evolution of Complexity Earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old1st living things, prokaryotic bacteria cells are found in the fossil record dating 3.5 billion years ago1st eukaryotic cells appear in fossil record dating 2.1 billion years agoBetween million years ago the fossil record shows the diversity of algae and small animal like organisms
5 Origin of LifeSpontaneous Generation: life from non-life was replaced with – BiogenesisOparin’s hypothesis of the origin of life was tested by Miller and Urey, creating organic compounds like amino acids but not lifeEndosymbiosis- the hypothesis behind the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes
6 What is a Virus?- nonliving… Composed of genetic material, RNA or DNA, and a protein coatGenetic material surrounded by a protein coat, must have a host cell in order to reproduceLife cycles: Lytic (kills host cell) or Lysogenic (incorporates DNA into host)
8 3 Domains Archea Eubacteria Eukarya Bacteria once belonged to the same Kingdom, Monera, but through Molecular Biology and the study of evolution, Biologist realized they had critical differences and should be placed into their own category so the “Domain” classification level was created.
10 Archea and Eubacteria Archea Kingdom Eubacteria Kingdom All prokaryotic single celled organisms.No Peptidoglycan in cell wallMost ancient and extremeThey live in the harshest environmentsMethanogens (anaerobic), thermoacidophiles (hot) and halophiles (salty)Eubacteria KingdomTrue bacteria, all prokaryotic single celledHave Peptidoglycan in cell wallClassified by their shape and gram stainingGram + have more peptidoglycan and stain purpleGram – have less peptidoglycan and stain pink
11 Shapes and ExamplesSphere- Cocci, can occur in chains Streptococcus Pneumoniae which can cause strep throat or Scarlet fever, or grapelike clusters Staphylococcus aureus which can cause skin infections and Toxic Shock syndromeRod- Bacillus ex Escherichia coli (E.coli), Lactobacilli which can cause tooth decay or one strain makes Sourdough bread, other bacilli can cause botulism, typhoid fever, and anthraxSpiral- Spirilla comes in 3 shapes 1. Vibro which is curved caused Cholera, 2. Spirillum (thick spiral), and 3. Spirochete (thin spiral) ex. Treponema pallidum causes Syphilis and another strain can cause Lyme disease
12 Images of bacteria Syphilis and Cholera Strep- chain Staph - cluster E. coli
13 Essential Bacteria: ecosystems depend on these small organisms Cyanobacteria- photosynthetic/producers, building blocks of most aquatic food websNitrogen- Fixing Bacteria- symbiotic relationship with plants, they help them absorb nitrogen from the soil.Helpful: fermentation, digestion, biotechnology, nitrogen fixing, decomposers, oxygen producersAntibiotics kill bacteria by destroying the cell wall, gram negative have an extra lipid layer that prevents the antibiotics from entering the cell.
14 Reproduction Bacteria reproduce asexually, binary fission Each bacteria has a single chromosome but can have additional DNA in the form of plasmids.Plasmids increase Bacterial genetic variation and contribute to Bacteria evolutionPlasmids can be exchanged between different bacteria (even different species) by a process called conjugation.Plasmids can also be taken up by bacteria from their environment via transformation.Additional DNA recombination can be introduced via a bacteriophage, this is called transduction.
15 Review of Bacteria All bacteria: Some Bacteria: Reproduce asexually Single celledHave cell wallSingle strand of DNASome Bacteria:AutotrophicHeterotrophicSome move by flagella, slime, spiral motionSome produce endospores which allow them to go dormant during hostile conditionsSome produce toxins
16 Kingdom Protista Kingdom of Mostly single celled organisms Categorized by their likeness to 3 other kingdomsAll Eukaryotic some Autotrophic and some Heterotrophic
17 Algae- Plant like Protist Algae or Plant-like, Autotrophic, classified by pigment with no cell wall, come form elaborate colonies and multicellular structures (kelp and seaweed)Chrysophyta- Golden Algae ex diatomsPyrrophyta- bioluminescent/glowex. DinoflagellatesEuglenaphyta- ex EuglenaRhodophyta- redPhaeophyta- brown, seaweed and kelpChlorophyta- green, ex Volvox, Spirogyra
18 Images of algaeVolvoxSpirogyraRed algaeSeaweedKelpDiatoms
19 Protozoa or Animal like Protist Protozoa or Animal-like, classified by mode of movementSarcodina ex. Amoeba- move by pseudopodia “false foot”Ciliophora ex Paramecium- move by cilia, tiny hairsZoomastigina ex Trypanosoma (African Sleeping Sickness) moves by flagellaSporozoa, are the parasitic animal like protista, include Plasmodium which causes Malaria
21 Fungus-like ProtistaFungus-like are all Heterotrophic with no cell wall, absorbing nutrients directly through cell membraneInclude Plasmodium or Slime Molds and Downy Mildews
22 Kingdom FungiAll Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophs (saprotrophs or detrivores living off dead and decaying organisms or decomposers), cell wall made of chitin (type of protein), and classified by reproductive structures.Mycoses is the term for Fungal Infection, Fungus destroys the cells around the infection site, to fight fungal infection you have to destroy the cell wallFungi are important part of an ecosystem because they recycle nutrients/ decomposers
23 Classifications of Fungi Club Fungi – Basidiomycota , Basidia, ex MushroomsSac Fungi- Ascomycota, Asci, ex. Truffles, Morels,Yeast, and Athletes Foot FungusZygote Fungi – Zygomycota, Sporangia, ex. Bread moldsImperfect- Deuteromycota, reproduce asexually, ex PenicillianLichen- Mycophycophyta, symbiotic relationship between fungus and photosynthetic cells of cyanobacteria or algae.
25 Kingdom PlanteMulticellular, Eukaryotic, Cell wall made of cellulose, Autotrophs, not capable of movement, reproduce sexually some produce spores and others seeds.Most have vascular tissues which include roots, stems, and leaves, and specialized tissues called xylem and phloem.
26 Plant evolution Evolved from green algae, 400-450 mya Evidence: they both…Chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoidsThylakoid membranesCell walls of celluloseStored carbohydrates as starch**Primitive plants were aquatic, but adaptations have allowed them to be successful on land.
27 Plant evolution cont’d Adaptations to terrestrial lifeCuticle (leaf)- keep water inStoma (leaf)- control gas exchangeDevelopment of specialized tissuesleaf, root, stem, root hairs, vascular tissueSymbiosis with fungi and bacteria to increase nutrient uptakeSecondary growth- lateral meristem to thicken structuresSpores and seeds not dependent on water
30 Photosynthesis relies on CO2 entering the leaf and O2 leaving the leaf Leaf surfaces contain stomataFigure: 7.15aCaption:(a) Stomata consist of two guard cells and a pore that opens to the leaf interior. 18 µmGuard cellsPoreStoma
31 Carbon dioxide diffuses into leaves through stomata H2OFigure: 7.15bCaption:(b) When a stoma is open, carbon dioxide diffuses into leaves along a concentration gradient.BUT: water also escapes through the stomataThis is a PROBLEM!Leaf cross-sectionCO2
32 Spore Producing Divisions of Plant 9 Phyla of Plants: can be divided into spore or seed producersSpore producersBryophyta only nonvascular plants, ex moss and liverwort (gametophyte dominant stage of life cycle know as alternation of generations)Lycopodophyta ex. 1,000 species of Club and Spike mossPterophytes 12,000 species of ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns have compound leaves called fronds (dominant stage is the sporophyte)
34 Seed producersGymnosperms: reproductive structure is the cone , “naked seed”Cycadophyta 130 species of these tropical plantsGinkgophyta 1 species remains the Gingko treeConiferophyta 600 species of conifers, pine, spruce, cypress, juniper, firGnetophyta 75 species of these arid/semi-desert dwelling plants
35 Seed producersAngiosprems- reproductive structure is the flower, seeds are surrounded by fleshy or dry fruit that ripen to encourage animals to disperse the seeds.30,000 or more identified speciesmaple, hickory, oak, aloe, roses, tulips, dogwood, magnolia, corn, beans, tobacco, apple tree, pecan tree2 classes:Monocots – with one seed leaf or cotyledon and parallel veins on the leaf, orchids, lilies, grass, corn, grainsDicots- with two seed leafs and branched veins on the leaf, roses, peas, beans, and oaks
38 Flowering Plant images Produce flowers and fruits (fleshy or dry)
39 Dry and Fleshy fruits Fruit is the mature ovary of the flower. It surrounds the seed and is often used to promote seed dispersal.Animals eat the fruit and seed and poop it somewhere else, this reduces competition with the parent plant.
40 Parts of a FlowerPollination- fertilization of the female gamete by the male gameteFlowers are designed to attract a pollinator, either by color, smell, or offer of food.Birds, insects, and mammals act as pollinator
41 Other Plant Info. Symbiotic relations ships: Plants and Nitrogen fixing BacteriaFlower patterns and scent attract pollinatorsFruits promote seed dispersal by offering a sweet reward to animals.
42 Plant Adaptations: Tropism- plant activities controled by hormones phototropism (light), geotropism (gravity), and thigmotropism (touch)specialized leaves (needles, spines, fuzzy, waxy) help reduce water loss in arid environments
43 Animaliamulticellular, eukaryotic, no cell wall, heterotrophs, capable of movement, reproduce sexually, body symmetry (radial or bilateral)9 Phyla- 8 invertebrate and 1 vertebrate
45 Invertebrate- Cnidarian Cnidarians- Stinging cells (nematocytes), radial symmetry, simple nervous system only stimulus and response, central cavity only one body opening, ex. jellyfish, coral, hydra, sea anemone
46 Invertebrate- wormsPlathyhelmenthes: flat worms, only one body opening, three cell layers,ex. Tapeworm, Fluke, Planarian, Marine wormsNematode: round worms, first with two body openings, 3 cell layers, many parasitic, Heartworm, Roundworm, Vinegar EelAnnelid: segmented worms, two body openings, 3 cell layers, beginning of circulatory system, and digestive system (crop), ex. Earthworm and Leech
48 Invertebrate Mollusksoft body, more complex body systems developing, eyes and nervous system, levels of communication beyond stimulus and response3 classesGastropod (snails and slugs),Cephalopod (squid octopus cuttlefish and chambered nautilus),Bivalve (oyster, clam, mussel, scallop)
57 AmphibianAmphibian, cold blooded, 3 chambered heart, born in water, develop lungs, smooth moist skin, ex. salamander, newts, frogs, and toads (only dry skin)
58 ReptileReptile, dry leathery skin with scales, cold blooded, most have a 3 chambered heart, amniote/terrestrial eggs, ex. Lizards, snakes, turtles, alligator, crocodile
59 BirdsBird, warm blooded, 4 chambered heart, hollow bones, body with feathers
60 MammalMammal, warm blooded, 4 chambered heart, milk producers, body with hair/furPlacental (live birth), Marsupial (pouch) ex. Kangaroo, and Monotremes (egg) ex Platypus
61 Body structure and development Animal FormBody structure and development
62 Gastrulation of the blastospore FigRemember this picture?Gastrulation of the blastosporeBlastocoelEndodermCleavageCleavageBlastulaEctodermArchenteronZygoteEight-cell stageGastrulationGastrulaBlastocoelBlastoporeCross sectionof blastula
63 Fig. 32-3True animals evolved from clusters of single cell flagellates (animal like Protista)You can see how the sponge is really an asymmetrical cluster of nondifferentiated cells.IndividualchoanoflagellateChoanoflagellatesOTHEREUKARYOTESSpongesAnimalsCollar cell(choanocyte)Other animals
65 Animal BehaviorsInnate:Instincts- complex pattern of innate behaviors, reflexes, fight or flight, courtships, species recognition (language, song, flashes of pattern/light)Territory- physical space needed for breeding, feeding, and shelter, organisms can expend a lot of energy defending territory some will fight to the death.Migration- instinctive seasonal movement, response to a changing environment, includes hibernation (cold) and estivation (dry and hot)
66 Behaviors cont’d Learned: Habituation- animal repeats a successful behavior, and does not repeat an unsuccessful behavior, birds learn which moths are poisonous by color and avoid eating them after becoming ill or getting a bad taste. Deer return to the same grazing field when successful.Imprinting – salmon and turtles return to same stream or beach to lay eggs in which they hatched, the environment left an imprint or memory
67 Adaptations for Defense: Mechanical- physical structuresChemical- stinging sensations, poisons, bad taste, paralysisCamouflage- color or pattern that blend into environmentDisruptive- ex zebraCryptic- ex chameleon and squidCountershading- ex Fish have light belly and dark back