3 We’ve got chemistry…(which is the study of matter) The atom is the basic unit of matter.(building block of matter)Atoms consist of subatomic particlesProtons (+ charge)Neutrons ( no charge)Electrons (- charge)
4 Protons & neutrons are found in the nucleus. Electrons orbit the nucleus.Protons & neutrons have about the same mass, and electrons are much less (1/1840 the mass of p & n)
5 Using the Periodic Table to calculate: Protons = atomic numberElectrons = atomic number (neutral atom, not in an ion)Remember Protons are positive and Electrons are negative so they are equal!Neutrons = atomic MASS – atomic number
16 2) Covalent Bonds Electrons are shared between atoms. Smallest unit of this type of compound is called a molecule.Nonmetal + Nonmetal or diatomic molecules have this type of bond.
17 Chemical ReactionsChemical reaction - process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances.Clues that a chemical reaction has taken place: 1) heat or light2) see bubbles3) something new
18 Chemical EquationsChemical formulas describe the substances in the reaction and arrows indicate the process of change.Reactants are the starting substances, on the left side of the arrow.Products are the substances formed during the reaction, on the right side of the arrow.
19 Glucose and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide and water.
20 Energy of ReactionsThe activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.
21 What is an enzyme?An enzyme is a special type of protein called a catalystCatalyst: substance that speeds up a reaction because it lowers the activation energyCells use enzymes to speed up reactionsVery specific: usually only catalyzes one item called the SUBSTRATE
23 How do enzymes work?Enzyme comes in contact with substrate at certain spot called ACTIVE SITEFits together like a “lock & key”Bonding at active site weakens the bonds in the substrateMakes it easier to change substrate
28 Warm up - Make a Venn Diagram for Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Copy the following: 1) What is this called? Label the reactant(s) and the product(s)H2O2 2H2O + O2
29 Water is soooo special! Most abundant compound in living things. Liquid at temperatures found over much of earth.Expands when freezes, which causes density less than liquid water. (unusual for a liquid)
30 What is polarity???Polarity is the uneven distribution of electrons between atoms in a covalent bond.In water, the oxygen is slightly negative because the electrons are attracted more to it than Hydrogen.
31 The hydrogen atoms in water have a slight positive charge because they are missing the electrons attracted more to oxygen.
32 Because of polarity, the water molecules attract each other Because of polarity, the water molecules attract each other. This is called cohesion.Water is also attracted to molecules of different substances. This is called adhesion.
33 Example of adhesion: water on the sides of a graduated cylinder. Capillary action is caused by this.
35 Warm up Enzymes p. 159 What is the function of an enzyme? What type of organic compounds are enzymes?What substance takes part in an enzymatic reaction, but is unchanged by the reaction?Draw Figure 6.18 and label it. (p. 160)
36 MixturesTwo or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together, but not chemically combined. They can be separated Physically!
37 Solutions vs. Suspensions Can be made with water…the universal solvent.Solution = solvent + solutesolution = homogeneous mixture
38 Universal solvent!Water can dissolve ionic compounds and other polar molecules…it is known as the greatest solvent on earth!
39 SuspensionWater and non-dissolved material with small particles that are suspended in the water.
40 Acids & BasespH scale: indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.Below 7 = acid, the lower the number, the more acidic.Above 7 = Base, the higher the more basic
46 What is organic chemistry? The study of all compounds containing the element CARBONNatural elements: make up 96% of the mass of a human: CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, NITROGEN (CHON)Trace elements: only needed in small amounts, called “minerals”:
47 What is a macromolecule? A giant molecule made up of 100’s or 1000’s of smaller units called MONOMERSMonomers link together to form large POLYMERSformed by polymerization
48 The types of macromolecules: NUCLEIC ACIDSCARBOHYDRATESPROTEINSLIPIDS
49 Carbohydrates Made of Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen atoms Main source of energy for living thingsPlants & some animals use for structural purposesExamples: monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide (sugars & starches)
50 Simple sugars are monosaccharide. Two monosaccharides join together to form a disaccharideLonger carbohydrate molecules are called polysaccharides (starches).
51 Figure 2-13 A StarchSection 2-3StarchGlucoseGo to Section:
52 Lipids (Fats, Oils & Waxes) Made mostly from carbon & hydrogenUsed to store energy & waterproof coveringsOlive oil, peanut oil
53 A triglyceride is a fat if it is solid at room temperature and an oil if it is liquid at room temperature.
54 Nucleic Acids Made of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, & phosphorus Made of monomers called nucleotidesNucleotides consist of1) a 5 carbon sugar2) a phosphate group3) a nitrogenous baseStore and transmit genetic information.
55 Proteins Made of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen Polymers of amino acidsSome control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processesSome used to form bones & musclesOthers transport substances into or out of cells or help fight disease
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