2What is Imperialism?Imperialism: the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories
3European nations had been exerting their influence over weaker territories for centuries. By the late 1800s, the leading powers of Europe (Britain, France, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Portugal, and Spain) carved up Africa and distributed control of the pieces among themselves.
4American support for overseas expansion began picking up steam in the late 1800s for several reasons:
5A Thirst for New Markets America needed access to raw materials to fuel its growing industrialization and new markets to sell its surplus of goods to.
6Desire for Military Strength As U.S. commercial interests became international, Americans began to view overseas expansion more favorably.Admiral Alfred Mahan argued for a strong U.S. Navy to defend the peacetime shipping lanes essential to American economic growth.
7The U. S. Navy was enlarged and modernized, making the U. S The U.S. Navy was enlarged and modernized, making the U.S. one of the world’s great sea powers.The U.S. acquired naval bases, coaling stations, defense outposts, and harbors in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean.
9Belief in Anglo-Saxon Superiority Some Americans combined the philosophy of Social Darwinism with the idea of the “White Man’s Burden,” a belief that the U.S. had a responsibility to spread Christianity and civilization to the world’s “inferior” peoples, to justify American imperialism.
10NationalismAmericans did not want to be left behind as a second-rate power as the countries of Europe became wealthier by acquiring overseas territories.As the countries of Europe increased their global military presence, joining the race for overseas territories was viewed as being in the U.S.’s national interest.
12American interest in Hawaii dates back to 1820 when missionaries went there to spread Christianity. They established schools, introduced writing, and trained native teachers.New England fishing vessels used the islands as headquarters for whaling expeditions, and American merchant ships stopped at Hawaii on their way to China.
13Americans settled on the islands and developed large sugar plantations Americans settled on the islands and developed large sugar plantations. Later, American planters developed the Hawaiian pineapple industry.In 1887 Hawaii leased Pearl Harbor on the island of Oahu to the United States as a naval base.
14In 1893 the native ruler, Queen Liliuokalani, was overthrown in a revolution organized by American settlers and led by Sanford B. Dole.The new government petitioned the U.S. to annex Hawaii.After the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, Congress accepted the offer. Hawaii was organized as a territory 2 years later.
18Cuba and Puerto Rico, in the West Indies, were the last remnants of Spain’s former empire in the Americas.The Cubans hated Spanish rule and tried several times to win their independence.
19Jose Marti, a Cuban poet and journalist in exile in New York, sparked a revolt in 1895 in which Cuban patriots destroyed much Spanish property.Spain retaliated by rounding up thousands of Cubans and placing them in concentration camps, where many died of hunger and disease.
20Yellow journalism: reporting that exaggerates the news to lure new readers American newspapers, especially those published by William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, used yellow journalism to dramatize incidents of Spanish cruelty.
22These sensational newspaper stories aroused widespread sympathy for the Cubans and touched off a demand that the United States go to the aid of Cuba.American business leaders, too, clamored for intervention in the Cuban struggle in order to safeguard their considerable investments in the Cuban sugar and tobacco industry.
23America Declares War on Spain In February, 1898, the U.S. battleship Maine, which had been sent to Havana, Cuba, to protect American lives and property, was destroyed by an explosion of unknown origin.Public opinion placed the blame on Spain, and all America was stirred by the slogan, “Remember the Maine!”
27In April, 1898, President William McKinley asked Congress for the authority to intervene in Cuba. Congress adopted a joint resolution that:
281) recognized the the independence of Cuba2) demanded the withdrawal ofSpanish armed forces from the island3) authorized the President to enforce these demands, and4) asserted that the United States had no intention of assuming control of Cuba
29Spain responded by breaking diplomatic relations with the United States and then declaring war. The United States in turn issued a declaration of war against Spain.
37With the arrival of American land forces during the summer, U. S With the arrival of American land forces during the summer, U.S. troops (aided by Filipino guerrillas led by Emilio Aguinaldo) attacked and occupied Manila (August 1898).The surrender of the Spanish garrison gave the Americans control of the Philippines.
40CubaIn June, 1898 an American army landed in Cuba and marched on the city of Santiago.A volunteer cavalry unit led by Teddy Roosevelt, known as the Rough Riders, captured the Spanish defenses guarding Santiago atop San Juan Hill.
44As the Americans laid siege to Santiago, the Spanish fleet guarding the city attempted to escape from Santiago Harbor, where it had been bottled up by a squadron of U.S. warships.The Spanish fleet was completely destroyed and soon afterwards Santiago surrendered (July, 1898).
46Puerto RicoAfter the fall of Santiago, U.S. troops invaded Puerto Rico.Encountering little opposition, they soon occupied the island and assumed control of its management.
47Treaty of PeaceRealizing the hopelessness of continuing the war, Spain sued for peace.With the signing of the Treaty of Paris (December, 1898) Spain granted independence to Cuba and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.
48For the Philippines, the United States agreed to pay Spain $20 million. The United States emerged from the Spanish-American War as a world power, a position that bred new problems and imposed new responsibilities.
50At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, the U. S At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, the U.S. declared that it had no desire to annex Cuba.Nevertheless, to maintain law and order, an American army occupied Cuba for four years.During this period, much progress was made. Highways were built, sanitation measures and education system introduced, and yellow fever all but eradicated.
51In 1902 the United States withdrew its army of occupation. Cuba proclaimed itself a republic, but its independence was limited by certain provisions governing future relations with the United States that were made part of the Cuban constitution.
52One provision, known as the Platt Amendment, authorized the U. S One provision, known as the Platt Amendment, authorized the U.S. to (1) maintain naval bases in Cuba, and (2) intervene, if necessary, to preserve Cuban independence and to maintain law and order.On several occasions during the next two decades, American troops were sent to Cuba to preserve order or to help put down armed rebellion.
55The Foraker Act of 1900 (1) made Puerto Rico an unorganized territory, (2) empowered the President to appoint a governor and an upper house of the legislature, and (3) provided for the election by the people of an assembly, or lower house.In 1917 Puerto Ricans received American citizenship and the appointive council was replaced by an elected assembly.
56Puerto Rico has benefited as an American commonwealth. To this day, however, the issue of independence, statehood, or commonwealth is a dominant theme of island politics.Proponents of all sides seek to gain control of the Puerto Rican gov’t and to convince a majority of the people to support their views.
58Unlike Cuba, the Philippine Islands were annexed and ruled directly by the United States. Many Filipinos resented American occupation and an anti-American uprising broke out in 1899 led by Emilio Aguinaldo.It took U.S. forces three years to suppress the rebels.
62The United States continued to govern the Philippines following the Filipino uprising. Over time, the U.S. would hand more control over to the Filipinos, and Congress passed a law that would grant the Philippines independence by 1946.In 1941 the Philippines was seized by Japan during WWII.
64In 1890, Alfred T. Mahan had urged the U. S In 1890, Alfred T. Mahan had urged the U.S. to develop a modern navy, establish naval bases in the Caribbean, acquire Hawaii and other Pacific islands, and construct a canal across the isthmus of Panama.By 1900, all but the last of these had been achieved.Teddy Roosevelt set out to cut a canal through Central America.
66Such a canal would eliminate the need for sailing around South America, thus shortening the water route from New York to San Francisco by 8,000 miles.The importance of a short route became more apparent with the acquisition by the U.S. of new territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.
67These widely dispersed holdings could be better defended if the U. S These widely dispersed holdings could be better defended if the U.S. Navy could move freely between the Atlantic and Pacific.The French had previously tried to build a canal across Panama, but abandoned their efforts due to high costs and disease.
68The French offered to sell the rights to build the canal to the U. S The French offered to sell the rights to build the canal to the U.S. for $40 million.Congress authorized President Roosevelt to accept the offer provided that Colombia, which owned Panama, agreed to U.S. control of the Canal Zone.
69A treaty negotiated in 1903 specified that the U. S A treaty negotiated in 1903 specified that the U.S. would pay Colombia $10 million in cash and $250,000 in yearly rent, but the Colombian senate held out for better terms.The delay aroused anger from Americans and Panamanians, both of which were anxious to see the canal built.
70The inhabitants of Panama then revolted and proclaimed their independence from Colombia. The revolution was successful largely because American warships and marines, dispatched to the area by Roosevelt, prevented the entry of Colombian military forces into Panama.
71The U.S. quickly recognized the new republic and negotiated a treaty transferring the Canal Zone to the U.S. for $40 million and $250,000 annually.The Panama Canal was opened to traffic in 1914, completed at a cost of over 5,600 men and almost $400,000,000.
75The Spanish-American War marked a changing of U. S The Spanish-American War marked a changing of U.S. foreign policy from isolationism to imperialism.Roosevelt’s active role in acquiring the canal zone in Panama was a prime example of America’s new foreign policy.
76Roosevelt often quoted an old African proverb: “Speak softly, and carry a big stick; you will go far.”The “Big Stick” was the American military, which Roosevelt strengthened and modernized. America’s military might would be used as leverage in gaining and protecting U.S. interests abroad.
78Roosevelt’s active foreign policy became known as “Big Stick Diplomacy Roosevelt wanted it made clear that the U.S. was the leading power in the Americas.He reminded European powers of the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the U.S. would not tolerate European intervention in the Americas.
80Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904), which stated that if a situation arose in the Western Hemisphere that required “international police power,” the U.S. would do the job.Less than a year later, U.S. Marines were doing just that in the Dominican Republic.
81The Dominican Republic had been unable to pay its foreign debts, so the U.S. took charge of the nation’s finances and arranged payments of its debts.In 1906 U.S. troops landed in Cuba to prevent a revolution there.Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy also came to be known as gunboat diplomacy.
83William Howard Taft, Roosevelt’s successor, further extended U. S William Howard Taft, Roosevelt’s successor, further extended U.S. influence in Latin America.Taft favored “substituting dollars for bullets” – economic influence for military force – as a means of protecting U.S. interests in Latin America.
84To implement this policy, which came to be known as dollar diplomacy, Taft suggested replacing European loans with American ones.He reasoned that this would decrease the risk of European intervention in Latin America.Nicaragua was one of the places that Taft put dollar diplomacy to the test.
85At the invitation of the Nicaraguan president, American bankers made loans totaling $1.5 million to Nicaragua in 1911.The following year, Taft sent more than 2,000 marines to crush a revolt and protect the U.S. investments that poured in.They did not leave until 1933.
87In 1913, President Woodrow Wilson gave the Monroe Doctrine a moral tone. According to Wilson’s “missionary diplomacy,” the U.S. had a moral responsibility to deny recognition of any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to U.S. interests.
89The Mexican Revolution put Wilson’s policy to the test almost immediately. The Mexican Revolution began in 1911 when longtime Mexican dictator Porifiro Diaz was overthrown.Diaz had been friendly to the U.S., allowing American companies to invest $1 billion in Mexican oil wells, mines, railroads, and ranches.
90For a brief period, Francisco Madero became Mexico’s elected president. He had intentions of reforming Mexico’s economy and restoring more control to Mexicans.Early in 1913 Madero was assassinated by General Victoriano Huerta, who set up a military dictatorship.
92President Wilson refused to recognize Huerta as the leader of Mexico because he had not been democratically elected.Huerta responded with attacks on American citizens, including the arrest of a squad of American Marines in 1914.
93Wilson used the incident as a excuse to intervene in Mexico and ordered Marines to land in Mexico. War was narrowly averted when the ABC Powers (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile) offered to mediate the dispute.Venustiano Carranza then forced Huerta out of power and was recognized by the U.S. as the new president of Mexico.
95Opposing Carranza was one of his own generals Pancho Villa, a bandit who fled to the mountains of Northern Mexico.Angry at the U.S. for its support of Carranza, Villa killed 17 Americans in northern Mexico.Later he crossed the border and killed 17 more Americans in New Mexico.
97President Wilson sent the U. S. Army, under the command of John J President Wilson sent the U.S. Army, under the command of John J. Pershing, into Mexico to capture Villa.The pursuit was unsuccessful, and the troops were recalled in 1917.
98Actions in Latin America were rarely questioned in the U.S. Americans saw their nation as a good police officer, keeping the peace and preventing disorder.Many Latin Americans believed the opposite. To them the U.S. was a bully more concerned with its business investments than with the people of Latin America.
100By 1900 China was a highly populated country with over 3,000 years of history. To preserve its culture, China tried to remain apart from the rest of the world.It made no effort to keep pace with Western industrialization or to build a modern army and navy.
101In the 19th Century the industrialized nations looked upon China as a source of raw materials and as a market for their finished products.Taking advantage of China’s military weakness, Japan and the European powers forced the Chinese to grant them leases to many of China’s seaports and economic centers.
102These areas were called spheres of influence. Ever since the colonial period, American merchants had been carrying on a brisk trade with China.After the U.S. acquired Hawaii, the Philippines, and the island coaling stations in the Pacific, Americans hoped to expand their commercial activities in the Far East.
103The U.S. found itself disadvantaged, however, because of the special commercial privileges wrung from China by Japan, Great Britain, Germany, Russia, and other powerful countries.To safeguard American interests, Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 proposed that the great powers agree on an Open Door Policy in China.
104Such a policy would provide all nations equal trading rights in China. Early in 1900 Hay announced that the Open Door Policy had been accepted by all the leading powers.Meanwhile, many Chinese resented foreign influence of any kind.
105A secret society called the Righteous and Harmonious Fists (the western press called them Boxers) started a rebellion in the spring on 1900 that led to the massacre of three hundred foreigners and Christian Chinese.
107Although the European powers eventually defeated the Boxers, Secretary Hay feared that the imperialist nations would use the rebellion as an excuse to seize more Chinese territory.
108Consequently, he issued a second series of Open Door notes, reaffirming the principle of open trade in China and made an even stronger statement about the intention of the United States to preserve it.
109For better or worse, imperialism had drawn the United States deeper into world affairs. At the same time, imperialism pushed Europeans toward the most destructive war they had yet experienced – a war the United States could not avoid.