2 Puerto Rico In 1900 congress passed the Foraker Act Authorized POTUS to appoint a governor and part of the legislature of Puerto RicoThe rest of the legislature would be determined by a general election in PRU.S. taxed Puerto Rican goodsPuerto Ricans did not have the same rights as U.S. citizens
3 Jones-Shafroth Act Granted Puerto Ricans more citizenship rights Gave them greater control of their legislatureStill didn’t have all the same rights as Americans
4 Cuba Platt Amendment Restricted rights of the Cubans Brought Cuba within the US spherePrevented Cuba from making agreements with other nations without US approvalRequired Cuba to lease naval stations to the USGave US the “right to intervene” to preserve order in CubaCubans didn’t like it!
5 “Big Stick” Diplomacy TR’s policy for US action in Latin America Depended on a strong military to achieve goals“Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.”America had a duty to “civilize” weaker nationsAmerica’s captains of industry should be international leaders
6 Panama CanalU.S. bought a French company’s claim in 1903 for $40 millionBefore building a canal to connect the Pacific to the Atlantic the US needed the permission of the Colombian govtColombia demanded more than the US was willing to giveTR sent warships to assist in the Panamanian rebellion against Colombia
7 Panama CanalColombia backed down after the military presence of the USPanama declared its independence and granted the US control over the “canal zone”US agreed to pay Panama $10 million and annual rent of $250,000US transferred control in 1999
8 Panama Canal More than 35,000 workers dug canal More than 5,000 died from disease or accidentsOpened in 1914
9 Roosevelt CorollaryEurope was angry because Latin Americans were not paying debts to foreign investorsUpdated the Monroe DoctrineTR wanted to keep the Western Hemisphere free from European interventionUS would act as policeLatin Americans wanted to police themselves!
10 Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” “Less big stick, more dollars”“substitute dollars for bullets”Wanted to increase American investments in Central American businesses and banks“Big Stick” sometimes had to be used to protect “dollar diplomacy”Example: Nicaragua…troops sent twice to protect the pro-American govt there
11 Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy Taft’s diplomacy basically failed
12 Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy” Unlike his predecessors, Wilson was anti-imperialismVowed US would not conduct territorial conquests, instead they would promote “human rights, national integrity, and opportunity.”Despite his rhetoric, he still used military to “guide” Latin AmericansExample: Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Mexico
13 Wilson’s Moral diplomacy Wilson’s plan didn’t really work either :’(
14 Wilson sends troops to Mexico Mexico arrested US sailorsWilson sent in Marines and collapsed Mexican governmentThings were good for a short timeRebels rose again led by Pancho VillaVilla attacked and killed 18 Americans in NMTroops sent to Mexico on a “punitive expedition”WWI distracted US from Villa
15 Poncho villaUS gave up the hunt, but he was killed by an unknown assassin in 1923.
16 EXIT SLIPAt the end of the Spanish-American War, the U.S. had accomplished its goal of becoming a world power, a role we still retain today.What problems have we faced as a nation historically because of the role we play in the rest of the world?