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Improving Teen Mental Health

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Presentation on theme: "Improving Teen Mental Health"— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving Teen Mental Health
Presentation for Teachers & Staff (Slide text above & notes below can be customized.) PRESENTER 1: (Speaker Introduces the Presentation) Hello, I’m __________________, and on behalf of the (school or group you are with) and the American Psychiatric Foundation, I’d like to thank you all for being here today. Today’s presentation is part of a national program from the American Psychiatric Foundation, the charitable and educational affiliate of the American Psychiatric Association, that cares deeply about ensuring that mental health problems are recognized as early as possible – to improve young lives. We are _______(say something about YOUR organization’s mission or work – be brief.)

2 One of the critical aspects of a student’s ability to learn is their mental health. And as teachers, the mental health of your students affects how well you’re able to do your job. We know you’re already doing so much to teach your students and ensure their well-being, and you have many demands on your time. Our goal today is to be as helpful as possible by providing you with information to help you notice and act if you see students who may have mental health problems. Presenter Note (PN): CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

3 Normal teen development
TODAY’S PRESENTATION State of the problem Treatment Steps to take Warning signs Normal teen development Types of mental health problems (PROTECTED: Slide and notes cannot be customized) PN: To highlight the agenda for today’s presentation, click repeatedly to reveal each heading in the slide above – as described below. PN: CLICK -- Today’s presentation will touch on the following areas: PN: CLICK -- The issue of teen mental health and the state of the problem PN: CLICK -- The positive effects of mental health treatment and what happens when problems are left untreated PN: CLICK -- Steps you can take if you see troubling signs PN: CLICK -- The warning signs of mental health problems PN: CLICK – Characteristics of normal teen development Referral process Talking to parents Managing the Classroom

4 PN: CLICK -- Types of mental health problems teens may be facing
The kinds of trained professionals who help teens with mental health problems Treatments and medications The different ways to find help for mental health problems PN: CLICK -- Such as our referral process for getting students help, and how it works when problems get referred outside of the school PN: CLICK -- Talking to parents, and PN: CLICK -- Managing disorders in the classroom So with that – we’re going to get started with today’s presentation. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE, AND PASS TO NEXT SPEAKER

5 (Insert Name of School)
(The text in this slide can be customized to include your school’s name) PRESENTER: SOMEONE FROM THE SCHOOL COUNSELING OR MENTAL HEALTH TEAM Teens today are facing stresses and challenges we may not have faced when we were growing up PN: CLICK TWICE TO ADVANCE SLIDE In each of your roles (whether we’re teachers, administrators, coaches, nurses, other staff) you make a difference in students’ lives in many ways everyday. And for students who may be experiencing emotional / mental health problems, you make a special kind of impact.

6 It’s the close collaboration we counselors have every day with teachers and staff like you - that enables us to help kids who are having problems. Teachers at our school are already doing a good job in helping students with these kinds of problems get help. Today we’ll talk about ways to help you do that even better. How to notice if you see troubling signs in a student, how to talk with the student about it, and how to act - by connecting the student to counselors and other mental health staff here. We know you are all so busy. Our goal with this information is not to burden you with more duties and tasks. Rather, it is to hopefully help you be more confident and at ease when dealing with these types of situations. We’re pleased that this school believes this is an important issue. And the school team has been very supportive in bringing this program here today – to help make sure our students thrive and stay physically and mentally healthy. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

7 No help = Pain Suffering Failing (PROTECTED)
Being a teenager has always meant dealing with lots of challenging issues. Today the world is different – and scarier – than maybe when we grew up Research is bearing that out – teens are showing more signs of mental health problems than ever before. We value our children’s health – both physical AND mental health. And it’s up to us to make sure they get the help they need to remain healthy so they can do well in school and have healthy life outcomes. Without that help - these kids can live with undue pain, suffering and failures in their lives. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

8 At least 1 in 5 children and adolescents has a mental health disorder
1 in 10 has a serious disorder 90% of people who develop a mental disorder show warning signs during their teen years (PROTECTED) So let’s look at a few statistics on mental health problems. PN: CLICK TO DISPLAY FIRST STAT NATIONALLY, Studies show that at least one in five children and adolescents has a mental health disorder. PN: CLICK TO DISPLAY NEXT STAT One in 10 has a serious disorder.

And 90% of people who develop a mental disorder show warning signs during their teen years. (American Association for World Health, 2001) (PN: If you like, add local information about the problem in your state. Find stats for your state on how many children and adolescents have mental health problems from local mental health organizations or the state mental health department.) PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

10 HELP = Better academic achievement
Less substance abuse Improved chances for their future (PROTECTED) The good news is: When young people who suffer from emotional or mental health problems get help through counseling and other treatment - it can really change the course of their lives. Positive effects of treatment include: Academic achievement: Research shows teens with mental health problems who get appropriate treatment, have increased test scores, and stay in school. And - effective mental health interventions and a positive school climate contribute to improved student achievement and a healthy safe environment.

11 2. Delayed onset of substance abuse:
If a mental health intervention occurs before the ages when kids are most likely to begin experimenting with or using drugs and alcohol, it can often deter substance abuse (research findings, New York Office of Mental Health.) which we know is a critically important issue. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

12 Everyone Can Make a Difference
School Staff Parents Every Adult (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE YOU WILL CLICK MULTIPLE TIMES ON THIS SLIDE, TO MAKE EACH CIRCLE APPEAR All of us – teachers & school staff (PN: CLICK), parents (PN: CLICK) and every adult who knows a teen (PN: CLICK) has a responsibility and a role in identifying if something’s going wrong, and making sure that child gets connected to help. For sure - parents have the primary role and responsibility for their child’s mental and physical health. The truth is -- parents may sometimes be too close to see a problem, or accept that there is a problem.

13 Teachers can be a power in a young person’s life
Teachers can be a power in a young person’s life. There is no doubt that you can have an amazing influence on your students. And this can carry over into their mental health. In terms of physical problems, if a teacher or another school staff person encounters a student with a broken arm, for example, you make sure they get care - because it’s causing them pain and can damage them now and into the future - if its not taken care of. Mental health is no different. Left untreated, mental health problems can greatly damage a young person’s present and their future. PN: CLICK TWICE TO ADVANCE SLIDE

14 Teachers’ Critical Role
(PROTECTED) PN: CLICK: The reality is that schools are often the place where these problems show up. Teachers often see these kids more than their parents or other family members do. We know you see the effects of kids with mental health problems, because more than likely they are impacting you, other students and your ability to keep your classes on track. Teachers like you have a unique perspective and important role in helping these kids get help. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE (CLEARS BOX, LEAVING ONLY THE TEACHER CIRCLE ON SCREEN)

15 On the Front Lines Influential Overburdened
(PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW THAT YOU WILL CLICK MULTIPLE TIMES FOR EACH BOX TO APPEAR Teachers are a critical link to student mental health in our school, by being the “eyes and ears” in the classroom. PN: CLICK You’re on the front lines - and see all kinds of problems your students are experiencing – problems at home, problems with friends, and sometimes the more serious mental health problems we’re discussing today. You have a big influence on your students (even if that’s hard to see sometimes.) Overburdened

16 PN: CLICK And you’re overburdened - with too much to do and too few hours in a day. Again – we’re not here to add work to your life. Instead, we hope to help you. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

17 Steps Teachers Can Take
ACT NOTICE TALK (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK MULTIPLE TIMES FOR EACH CIRCLE TO APPEAR There are three steps that teachers should take: PN: CLICK 1) NOTICE if you are seeing troubling signs in a student. You may also share what you’re noticing with other teachers to confirm whether they are seeing these same signs. 2) TALK with the student. Ask how he or she is doing. Suggest that he or she talk with someone on the mental health staff. Even offer to take them to the appropriate counselor. You can focus on observable behaviors or actions you’ve noticed. But you are not making any kind of diagnosis.

18 Why talk? Research shows that teens consider teachers some of the most influential people in their lives. So even a brief conversation with you will let them know that someone cares, and it might make them more open to getting help from counselors. There’s still a lot of misunderstanding, misinformation and stigma about mental health problems. You can also talk to the student’s parents. I know this is an area that many of you want some help on, and we’ll address this later. PN: CLICK 3) ACT by sharing what you’ve noticed with the school mental health staff. This will put it on their radar screen - and get the student connected to help. Due to confidentiality, however, they may not be able to share information with you regarding the student’s diagnosis. We’ll have a chance to talk about these steps again as we go through today’s presentation.

19 (PN: The picture in this slide may be replaced with one reflective of your student body)
(INTRODUCE THE NEW PRESENTER – MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONAL ) Right now I’d like to turn over the floor to ______________________(fill in with name, title, role) who will share with us some valuable information about teen mental health.

PN: THANK YOU, (INTRODUCE YOURSELF – SAY HOW YOU MAY BE CONNECTED TO THE SCHOOL OR COMMUNITY) I know teachers here are already doing a lot to make a difference in the lives of students suffering from mental health problems. That is so important. Your role IS NOT to become a junior psychiatrist and diagnose mental health disorders. That’s the job of a trained mental health professional. But your role IS to notice and act on signs that may signify something serious. You are the eyes and ears of the medical community here in schools because as teachers, are in an ideal position to know, intuitively, what is or is not normal for one of your students.

21 By NOTICING, TALKING and ACTING - you will help to make sure these students get on the right path to treatment and change the course of their lives. Intervening early – before problems and behaviors are entrenched – can shorten their road to recovery. So what are some signs commonly seen by teachers that could alert you that a more serious problem is going on? PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

22 Angry or aggressive behaviors
(PROTECTED) Angry or aggressive behaviors PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

23 Poor concentration (PROTECTED)
Poor concentration, student can’t focus, fidgets PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

24 Increased tardiness or absences
(PROTECTED) Increased tardiness or absences One of the earliest signs PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

25 Withdrawn Withdrawn (PROTECTED)
Student seems withdrawn, silent, lacks friends Especially if it’s a change from before PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

26 Anxious (PROTECTED) Student appears overly anxious or worried, even fearful PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

27 Troubled? Typical? (PROTECTED)
PN: CLICK (TO DISPLAY one half of slide TYPICAL) PN: CLICK (TO DISPLAY other half of slide TROUBLED) But you may wonder whether what you’re seeing in one of your students is just a typical sign of the teenage years, or signifies something more troubling. As a teacher, it is NOT your job to figure out whether what you’re seeing is merely typical teen behavior, or a sign of a more serious mental health problem. That’s the job of a trained mental health professional.

28 Instead, as a teacher, what you can do is pay attention to the signs a student may be showing, and if they seem troubling – act and connect that student to help. We’ll talk more about this. First, let’s take a brief look at normal teen development. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

29 Complex period of rapid change, transition
Challenges: fitting in, defining identity, competing demands (school, home) Sometimes - other home issues (divorce, violence or substance abuse) Bottom line: May display alterations of mood, distressing thoughts, anxiety, and impulsive behavior. Typical Teens (PROTECTED) PN: CLICK (TO DISPLAY “TYPICAL TEENS”) The teen years are complex. Adolescence is a period of transition and rapid change. Adolescence is characterized by accelerated physical, physiological and cognitive development, as well as new and changing social demands. Research shows: brains are not fully developed until a person’s mid-20s. The last areas in the brain to develop are tied to sensation-seeking, impulse control and judgment.

30 Teens are dealing with emotionally charged challenges - like fitting in socially, defining one’s identity, and dealing with competing demands of school and home. Some have added burdens at home - like divorce, violence or substance abuse. So even normal adolescents may display alterations of mood, distressing thoughts, anxiety, and impulsive behavior. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

31 Experiencing more than normal developmental challenges
Without treatment, more likely to have serious problems: Academic Relationships Employment Signs of Trouble (PROTECTED) PN: CLICK (TO DISPLAY “TROUBLED TEENS”) But some teens are experiencing more than normal developmental challenges. And they exhibit signs and behaviors that point to more serious mental health problems.

32 academic and behavior problems
Without treatment, they’re much more likely to have serious problems now and as adults: academic and behavior problems disruptions in relationships (or inability to form relationships) later on - unemployment or underemployment, among many other problems PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

33 What causes mental health disorders?
biology + environment (PROTECTED) PN: CLICK (TO DISPLAY QUESTION) What do we know about the causes of mental health problems in people? PN: CLICK TWICE (TO DISPLAY BIOLOGY, THEN ENVIRONMENT) By and large – they are the result of the interaction between a person’s biochemistry and their environment.

34 Sometimes there are genetic predispositions to mental disorders
Sometimes there are genetic predispositions to mental disorders. Children with a family history of such disorders are especially susceptible. In fact, genetic mapping can now show some of the mental health problems a child may be vulnerable to developing. For children who are more vulnerable in this way - environmental stressors (such as family problems like divorce) also can influence teens’ emotional and psychological states, as can the physiological changes happening in their bodies. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

35 FREQUENT ? EXTREME ? As you NOTICE signs, ask yourself, are they:
(e.g., student is quiet, withdrawn over multiple days/weeks) EXTREME ? (e.g., violent outburst) If either: TALK with student ACT by communicating what you’ve seen/heard with school MH staff (PROTECTED) So how can you better understand whether what you’re seeing points to Typical or Troubled? Ask yourself two questions: 1) HOW FREQUENT? Are warning signs happening over and over again? Warning signs don’t usually show up one time. They persist over a couple of weeks, and don’t go away.

36 2) HOW EXTREME? If a warning sign or behavior only shows up infrequently, or even one time, is it extremely different from this student’s usual way of behaving? If you answer YES to either question – this is a good indicator that something serious is going on. You should TALK to the student, and ACT – by connecting with the school mental health staff to let them know what’s going on. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

37 Teen Mental Health Disorders
Mood disorders Anxiety disorders Psychotic disorders (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK MULTIPLE TIMES FOR EACH CATEGORY TO APPEAR What are the types of mental health problems a teen might experience? There are four major overall categories of mental disorders: PN: CLICK Mood disorders (depression, bipolar disorder) 2) Anxiety disorders (Post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia) Behavioral/disruptive disorders

38 3) Psychotic disorders (schizophrenia)
PN: CLICK 3) Psychotic disorders (schizophrenia) 4) Behavioral and disruptive disorders (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) PN: CLICK TWICE TO ADVANCE SLIDE We will also discuss teen substance use and mental health

39 CLINICAL DEPRESSION BIPOLAR DISORDER Deep despair, sadness, crying
1 in 13 teens experience symptoms BIPOLAR DISORDER Extreme changes from happy to sad 1 in 100 teens have it Hard to diagnose, looks like depression (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK FOR EACH DISORDER TO APPEAR Now, I’ll briefly touch on key aspects of the disorders, and how they might show up in the school setting: (Keep in mind you should not be diagnosing these disorders) PN: CLICK: Clinical depression Individuals experience deep despair, sadness, crying, sleep disturbance, chronic fatigue & other physical symptoms, thoughts of death/suicide. As many as 1 in 13 adolescents experience symptoms of depression at some time. Adolescent girls are twice as likely to experience bouts of depression. (How it may look in school setting: Withdrawal, silence, body/stomachaches, trips to the nurse)

40 PN: CLICK: Bipolar disorder
Type of mood disorder, marked changes between extreme elation/ happiness and severe depression. Estimated 1 in 100 teenagers have it. Can be charming/productive during manic phase, deep despair during depressive phase. Suicide is very real concern for adolescents with bipolar. Especially hard to diagnose in the teen years because it looks like clinical depression. (How it may look in school setting: Extreme ups and downs in attitude and behavior) PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

41 ANXIETY DISORDERS EATING DISORDERS Overwhelming fear with no cause
Frequently runs in families EATING DISORDERS Unrealistic thoughts about weight 1 in 20 teens suffer; 90% females Can result in death (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK FOR EACH DISORDER TO APPEAR PN: CLICK: Anxiety disorders (Includes panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and social phobia). Person experiences overwhelming or terrifying fear, or fearful anticipation of danger or problems, often with no apparent cause. Can be incapacitating, or mild but incessant anxiety or repetitive rituals. Frequently runs in families. Young people have nearly 1 in 7 chance of developing. (Obsessive compulsive disorder frequently arises during teen years, and can be the most disabling of anxiety disorders.) (How it may look in school setting: Fidgeting/tapping, body/stomachaches, trips to the nurse)

42 PN: CLICK: Eating disorders (Anorexia and bulimia)
Unrealistic, irrational thoughts about weight. Refusing to maintain body weight at or above a minimal normal weight for age/height or repeated episodes of binge eating and purging. 1 in 20 adolescents suffer from an eating disorder; 9 in 10 are girls. Anorexia is easier to see, due to low body weight – bulimia is harder to see. Taken to extreme, it can affect the heart and result in death. (How it may look in school setting: Extreme thinness, signs of throwing up, excessive time in restroom) PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

43 SCHIZOPHRENIA ADHD Strange thoughts, unusual behaviors
High functioning, then big decline Distrustful, no longer social, voices ADHD Problems paying attention Can seriously impact ability to learn (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK FOR EACH DISORDER TO APPEAR PN: CLICK: Schizophrenia Most chronic and debilitating of all psychiatric conditions. Causes strange thinking, strange feelings, unusual behavior, hallucinations. Kids can be high functioning and then experience a big decline. They may be distrustful, no longer social, responding to voices, and may experience a decline in school performance. Early intervention may improve youngster’s prognosis. Subtle warning signs may be attributed to normal growing pains of adolescence. (How it may look in school setting: Very disturbed and/or paranoid statements)

44 PN: CLICK: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Problems paying attention and concentrating, with hyperactive and impulsive behaviors Can seriously impact ability to learn and overall school performance, and can lead to later difficulties/failure in education, job, marriage. (How it may look in school setting: May result in disruptions in the classroom) PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

Stubborn, argumentative, hostile Major distraction in the classroom CONDUCT DISORDER Verbal/physical aggression End up in juvenile hall (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK FOR EACH DISORDER TO APPEAR PN: CLICK: Oppositional Defiant Disorder Pattern of persistently negative behavior with hostile edge. Stubborn, argumentative, a major distraction in the classroom (How it may look in school setting: Teachers consistently shown disobedience and disrespect)

46 PN: CLICK: Conduct Disorder
Verbal and physical aggression toward people and animals. Similar to oppositional defiant disorder, but these kids are already breaking rules, can end up in juvenile hall. Without treatment, most young people with this condition face a dim future. Studies of juveniles in prison found that approximately 9 in 10 had this disorder. (How it may look in school setting: Aggressive, violent behavior / outbursts) PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

47 Teen Mental Health & Substance Abuse
(PROTECTED) PN (Presenter’s Note): The next few slides focus on teen mental health and substance use. Use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs by teens can be very common and can often have serious consequences for them. Using substances may be the way a teen is trying to cope with a mental health problem they are struggling with. And, using substances can also lead to mental health problems, which I’ll talk about some more. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE 47

48 Teen use & abuse of alcohol and drugs can be common. Why?
Curiosity, feels good, reduce stress, fit in, feel grown up Some use drugs/alcohol to compensate for anxiety, depression, lack of positive social skills (PROTECTED) First, why do teens experiment with and use alcohol and other drugs in the first place? According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), there are multiple reasons: -- Adolescent curiosity and desire to try new things. -- To feel good or reduce stress, peer pressure, and trying to fit in and to feel grown up. -- But some teens are using alcohol and other drugs to compensate for more serious mental health issues they’re experiencing -- such as anxiety, depression, and lack of positive social skills. A depressed teen may use alcohol or other drugs as a way to try and feel better. (STAY ON THIS VISUAL AND CONTINUE WITH SCRIPT NEXT PAGE….) 48

49 (Continued talking points)
What kinds of substances are teens using? The most common ones are: alcohol, prescription medications (and over the counter cold medicine), inhalants (fumes from glue, or aerosols), marijuana, stimulants (cocaine, crack, speed), LSD, PCP, opiates, “designer drugs” (Ecstasy). -- And because research has shown that tobacco/alcohol can be “gateway drugs” (for marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, or even heroin) – use of these substances among teens should also be taken seriously. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

50 Some facts: Teen mental health & substance abuse:
Mental health disorders often co-exist with substance abuse problems Repeated & regular recreational use can sometimes lead to anxiety and depression Teen risk factors for developing serious alcohol/drug problems: depressed, low self-esteem, feel out of mainstream, family history of substance abuse, lack of positive social skills (PROTECTED) Some other important facts about teen substance use and mental health. Mental health disorders and substance abuse frequently co-exist together. Where you find one – you’ll often find the other. Repeatedly and regularly using substances can lead to depression and anxiety in a teen. Some teens may experiment with substances and then stop, or even use occasionally without significant problems. Others, however, will develop a dependency and possibly move on to more dangerous drugs and serious consequences. So, what are the risk factors that a teen will develop a serious alcohol/drug problem? -- depression -- low self-esteem -- feeling out of the mainstream with other people -- having a history in their family of substance abuse and lack of positive social skills CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE 50

51 Warning Signs of teen drug/alcohol abuse
Emotional: Personality change, mood changes Irritable, negative attitude Depression Irresponsible or delinquent behavior Drop in school performance Change in groups of friends (PROTECTED) The warning signs that a teen may be abusing drugs or alcohol can be both emotional and physical. Emotional signs include the ones noted here. You’ll notice that some are similar to the warning signs I mentioned earlier for teen mental health problems overall. -- Personality change, mood changes -- Irritable, negative attitude -- Depression -- Irresponsible or delinquent behavior -- Drop in school performance -- Change in groups of friends PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE 51

52 Warning Signs (cont’d)
Physical: Fatigue Repeated health complaints Red/glazed eyes, lasting cough Changes in eating or sleeping habits (PROTECTED) There may also be physical warning signs in teens who are abusing alcohol or other drugs. They include: -- Fatigue -- Repeated health complaints -- Red/glazed eyes, lasting cough -- Change in eating/sleeping habits Serious alcohol or substance abuse problems will require professional help to manage and control, which we will discuss in the treatment and help section later in the presentation. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE 52

53 Abuse of alcohol/ drugs
Physical complaints Abuse of alcohol/ drugs Depression Self-injury Threats to run away Aggression Intense fear of becoming obese Frequent outbursts Nightmares Inability to cope Marked change in school performance Threat to harm self or others Sexual acting out (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW THAT YOU WILL CLICK MULTIPLE TIMES TO GET EACH WARNING-SIGN CIRCLE TO APPEAR The Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) is a leading national professional medical association dedicated to treating and improving the quality of life for children, adolescents and families affected by mental, behavioral or developmental disabilities. They have developed a list of warning signs that can indicate serious mental health problems in teens. They are….. Unusual behavior

Many of these can be seen in school, others not. This list isn’t meant to overwhelm you. Instead – its more of a reference that you can go back to over time as you need it. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

55 Psychiatrists Psychologists Mental Health Counselors
(PROTECTED) Who does what in an ideal world? The professionals trained and skilled in helping adolescents with mental health problems include Psychiatrists, Psychologists, and Mental Health Counselors. THEY ALSO COULD INCLUDE Family Physicians, Pediatricians, Social Workers, School Mental Health Counselors, School Psychologists (Others) PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

56 Psychiatrists Psychologists Mental Health Counselors
(PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK MULTIPLE TIMES FOR EACH CIRCLE TO APPEAR PN: CLICK Psychiatrists Medical doctors who specialize in evaluating, diagnosing and treating mental disorders through medication and therapy. Child and adolescent psychiatrists have a special expertise in treating teens and children. Psychiatrists prescribe and monitor medication (pediatricians and other physicians can also prescribe) Psychologists Have a more hands-on role, teaching students skills, working with the family, communicating with psychiatrist PhD or masters’ degree in psychology Trained to make diagnoses, conduct individual and group therapy, provide evaluations and assessments to measure people’s intellect and psychological health.

57 PN: CLICK Mental Health Counselors: Also have a more hands-on role, much like psychiatrists. Clinical social workers, licensed professional counselors, mental health counselors, marital and family therapists, psychiatric nurses. (Here in our area we have….FILL IN) All have graduate degrees, are trained to make diagnoses, provide individual and group counseling/psychotherapy. Practice in variety of settings - independent practice, schools, community agencies, managed care organizations, etc. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

58 School Mental Health Professionals
(PROTECTED) And in the school setting, there is a SCHOOL MENTAL HEALTH TEAM that can address these issues. The team can include: School psychologists School counselors School social workers PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

59 EFFECTIVE TREATMENT Therapy, Medication
Sometimes combination works best No “silver bullet” or quick fix – timeframe depends on: Severity of disorder Temperament of child Family & school support (PROTECTED) Therapy and medications can both be very valuable to treat mental health problems. Studies have shown that combination treatment (therapy + medication) has been most effective for depression and anxiety disorders. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

60 MEDICATION Used to: Improve daily functioning Prevent serious symptoms Enable therapy to be more effective Must be used appropriately and only under care of psychiatrist or other physician (PROTECTED) MEDICATION The purpose of medication for adolescents or adults is to reduce or eliminate troubling symptoms to: improve daily functioning prevent more serious outcomes (i.e., can prevent psychotic break in people with schizophrenia) enable therapy to be possible and effective (due to lessened symptoms.) As with any condition – these medications must be used appropriately under the care of a physician. The FDA announced warnings for antidepressant use among teens.

61 [From: ” ]
Position of APA: “The American Psychiatric Association believes that antidepressants save lives. As part of a comprehensive treatment plan, antidepressants can be extremely helpful for many young people struggling with depression, an illness with significant long-term consequences, including increased risk for suicide.” APA is working with pediatricians and other physicians to help them properly diagnose, treat and monitor patients. [From: ” ] PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

62 Effective Mental Health Treatment
THERAPY Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Family Therapy (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK MULTIPLE TIMES FOR EACH TYPE OF THERAPY TO APPEAR PSYCHOTHERAPY Psychotherapy, or “talk therapy” (counseling), is a form of treatment that can help children and families understand and resolve problems, modify behavior, and make positive changes in their lives. Among the many different psychotherapy approaches, those most commonly used with teens include: PN: CLICK Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) – one-on-one therapy with a mental health professional that helps improve a child's moods and behavior by examining and “unlearning” confused or distorted patterns of thinking. Widely practiced with teenagers, this is results-oriented and usually short-term. Group Therapy

63 PN: CLICK Family Therapy – focuses on helping the family function in more positive and constructive ways by exploring patterns of communication and providing support and education. Group Therapy – uses the power of group dynamics and peer interactions to increase understanding and improve social skills.

64 Effective Treatment for Mental Health and Substance Use
Adolescent psychiatrist consultation to help with assessing for co-existing mental health diagnoses and treatment decisions Types of treatment might include inpatient, outpatient programs, support groups, twelve-step programs (PROTECTED) Serious alcohol or substance use problems also require professional help to manage and control. A first step for a parent is to have a consultation – with an adolescent psychiatrist or other mental health professional experienced in mental health and substance use disorders They can help assess for both mental health problems as well as co-existing substance use problems. Types of treatment for substance use problems can encompass a range of approaches, which include inpatient and outpatient programs. These can include individual, family and group therapy; support groups and 12-step programs (such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA)). 64


66 PROCESS IN A SCHOOL TEACHER identifies a cause for concern in a student TEACHER talks to student TEACHER notifies SCHOOL COUNSELOR assigned to student (or CASE MANAGER for special ed students) STUDENT and SCHOOL COUNSELOR meet If problem is identified as a behavior/conduct problem, student is sent to ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL SCHOOL SOCIAL WORKER or PSYCHOLOGIST or other is engaged if needed SCHOOL COUNSELOR handles problem OR (This slide should be customized.) PN: In your school or agency there may be a different structure for helping students with mental health problems. Adjust the talking points on the following slides to best reflect your school or agency process. Those being trained are very interested in this section, because they may not know how the referral works AND they sincerely want to know. Add individuals or departments that may be involved in your referral process. Give as much information as possible.) PN: CLICK AND READ OUT LOUD EACH BOX AS IT APPEARS Here’s a diagram that shows the process for helping an adolescent/ student get help. People are in place here and ready to assist and respond to your concerns. It is our hope that we can better communicate the outcomes of these referrals back to teachers and others who help identify problems in students. SCHOOL COUNSELOR provides information on outside resources SOCIAL WORKER MH COUNSELOR PSYCHOLOGIST PSYCHIATRIST

67 External Referral Process
PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE PN: The following is an example of a process for referring a student to EXTERNAL help. Notes section here can be revised to reflect your school’s process After a student has been seen by one of our mental health counselors, if more help is needed - here’s a typical process for how that would happen: A (name the school) mental health professional would tell the parents about resources available to them. If the parent chooses to move forward, he/she would work with an outside mental health professional who will do a thorough diagnostic evaluation (intellectual, psychological and social development). Sometimes the parent may choose to talk to their family physician or pediatrician. Parents are involved and complete a detailed questionnaire

68 The teen’s teacher, other relatives and pediatrician may be asked to contribute information for the evaluation process. Following evaluation, treatment can include either psychotherapy (“talk therapy”), medications or a combination of both. Other resources that exist for kids who are referred externally, include: Social services Special academies for troubled kids Other district programs PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

69 Managing Disorders in the Classroom
Follow good classroom management principles Communicate with others (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK FOR EACH BOX TO APPEAR Managing a classroom in which you have a student – or several students – with behavior or mental health issues can be challenging, and our mental health team is here to help you. Several strategies exist, that, when used together create a formula for success. These principles are effective for all students, but can be particularly helpful for students with behavior or mental health problems. They include: PN: CLICK Good Classroom Management Principles A teacher who is firm, fair and clearly in charge will be the teacher who succeeds with good overall classroom management. Providing structure, consistency and organization in the classroom are important. The classroom should be a positive place that is welcoming, inclusive and inviting. Take care of yourself

70 In particular, classroom behavior rules should be clearly communicated – surprise is not beneficial in this context. Predictability creates a stable environment. When dealing directly with students, using praise more than reprimands is recommended – and always praise in public and reprimand in private. Communicate regularly with the school mental health staff to get the support you need. PN: CLICK Communicate with Each Other Talk or with your colleagues and share tips for managing your students. As we’ve said, you all are on the front lines and have the hands-on experience. More often than not, you probably have ways of working with your students that may be helpful to another teacher.

71 PN: CLICK Take Care of Yourself
Take care of number one – yourself. Often, we put ourselves last on the long list of things to get done. But it is important for you to take care of yourself so you can be the best you can be for your students and everyone else in your life. Take advantage of employee assistance programs for stress relief or to talk through concerns in your life. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

72 Be positive and have perspective
Talking with Parents Observable behaviors Start early Be positive and have perspective (PROTECTED) PN: NOTE BELOW YOU WILL CLICK FOR EACH BOX TO APPEAR We recognize that different comfort levels exist among all of you with regard to interacting with parents. A survey found that teachers and parents want to communicate more – but finding the time to do so and getting over the intimidation factor are big hurdles. (Michigan’s Your Child Coalition survey, Remember when you’re talking with parents about possible warning signs of a more serious mental health problem, you should only be discussing those observable behaviors that you’re seeing. You are not in a position to be diagnosing mental health disorders. Stick together

73 Some tips for talking with parents include:
PN: CLICK Start Early First impressions can make or break parent-teacher relationships. A Montana principal stresses the importance of the first seven seconds of an initial meeting with parents. This is how long it takes to make a first impression. If it is positive, research shows that even negative incidents later won’t impact the first positive image. So if you can focus on making that first meeting a positive one, it will help pave the way for future meetings or discussions where you may have to address a sensitive issue like troubling behaviors you’re noticing in a student. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

74 PN: CLICK Be Positive and Have Perspective
Make an effort to maintain frequent and open communication with parents. And communicate the positive – not just the negative. Parents tend to shut down if all they are hearing about is poor progress or problem behavior. Some of you probably are parents yourselves, and it is important to put yourself in the parent’s place and try to see things from their perspective.

75 PN: CLICK Stick Together
Teachers should feel comfortable asking a member of the (NAME THE SCHOOL) mental health team to sit in on parent meetings or conferences, when it’s appropriate. If you anticipate an angry parent or unpleasant situation, you then have another adult who works with the child with you for support.

PN: NOTE YOU WILL CLICK MULTIPLE TIMES FOR EACH CIRCLE TO APPEAR Again - just to reinforce what’s been said earlier in our presentation… We know you’re not a psychiatrist or a therapist - none of us want you to be. But you ARE a critical link from your students to the mental health team in our school and beyond. PN: CLICK By NOTICING warning signs - you may be clueing into their cry for help.

77 PN: CLICK By TALKING with the student - you’re showing them someone cares, and you’re supporting them as they get help for their problem. By ACTING - by talking with one of us on the mental health team - you’re taking care of the health and future of your student. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

78 Changing a Life’s Course
(PROTECTED) PN: CLICK As my final comment – Your role with a student who has mental health problems can change their life course. Students who get treatment are more likely to achieve higher academic performance than those who don’t. Changing a Life’s Course

79 In their personal lives, they’ll do better with relationships
In their personal lives, they’ll do better with relationships. They’ll do better with envisioning their future – and following their dreams. What you do makes a real difference! PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

80 More Resources for You
(American Psychiatric Association) Other Resources (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry) (Slide text above & notes below can be customized.) PN: You may want to add additional resources from your local community to this slide, and change the notes to reflect those revisions. As we wrap things up here, we want to let you know about some resources for you. AACAP – or The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is another resource for you – they have a lot of information on teen mental health. Another website is healthy minds which is the American Psychiatric Association website.

81 Thank you all so much for being here today
Thank you all so much for being here today. We hope we’ve given you some useful information that will help you as you continue to do the great jobs that you do as teachers here at our school. Before we let you go, we want to get some feedback from you on our presentation today. Please take a minute to fill out the short evaluation form that’s being passed out to you. We’ll collect those in a couple minutes. You don’t need to include your name on these evaluations, so please be candid. PN: CLICK TO ADVANCE SLIDE

82 (Slide picture above may be customized to one that is more reflective of your student body)

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