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The Spanish-American War and the Growth of US Imperialism.

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Presentation on theme: "The Spanish-American War and the Growth of US Imperialism."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Spanish-American War and the Growth of US Imperialism

3 TRADITIONAL UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY WAS ISOLATIONIST It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world PRESIDENT GEORGE WASHINGTON, 1796

4 FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS: GEORGE WASHINGTON IN 1796 CAUTIONED THE NATION TO STAY OUT OF WORLD (EUROPEAN) AFFAIRS AND NOT GET INVOLVED IN THEIR WARS. IT WAS US FOREIGN POLICY TO AVOID THESE ENTANGLEMENTS AFTER WW I. US POLICY.

5 Most of the 19 th century was spent exploring and settling the western frontier of the United States, this changed the perception of American boundaries

6 Manifest Destiny Idea Manifest Destiny was the idea that White Americans were a superior people and had a right/destiny to control the North American continent By 1890, the dream of the Manifest Destiny was complete. US Census Bureau announced the frontier was gone and US was now settled. Many Americans believed growth and expansion (Manifest Destiny) should now go beyond the continent into the rest of the world.

7 Manifest destiny extended beyond the borders of the united states

8 The foreign policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political power and control over other nations. DEFINITION OF IMPERIALISM

9 Why Expand the American Empire into other countries (imperialism? To sell American manufactured goods overseas Increase American glory and prestige in the world-gain respect To spread democracy and Christianity to foreign lands- The White Mans Burden To stay in competition with the Imperialistic European countries

10 The Spanish-American War

11 I should welcome almost any war for I think this country needs one. Theodore Roosevelt

12 It has been a splendid little war; begun with the highest motives, carried on with magnificent intelligence and spirit, favored by that fortune which loves the brave. John Hay, US Secretary of State

13 Going to war with Spain was like robbing an old gypsy woman in a vacant lot at night after a fair. Sherwood Anderson, American author

14 The truth is, I didn't want the Philippines and when they came to us as a gift from the gods, I did not know what to do with them... sought counsel from all sides-- Democrats as well as Republicans but got little help. I am not ashamed to tell you, gentlemen, that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance... And one night late it came to me this way: (1) that we could not give them back to Spain that would be cowardly and dishonorable; (2) that we could not turn them over to France or Germany our commercial rivals in the Orient-- that would be bad business and discreditable; (3) that we could not leave them to themselves they were unfit for self- government and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain's was; and (4) that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God's grace do the very best we could by them... And then I went to bed, and went to sleep and slept soundly. President William McKinley

15 PROBLEMS BETWEEN CUBA AND THEIR SPANISH RULERS DOMINATE AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY AT THE END OF THE 19 TH CENTURY CUBA

16 Cuban Revolution 1895 Jose Marti Maximo Gomez Antonio Maceo

17 The Cuban Revolution and the Maine Incident 1894-Cubans revolted against repressive Spanish rule Spaniards had placed Cubans in reconcentration camps America had much invested in Cuban sugar plantations The USS Maine Explosion- (Feb 1898) US battleship rocked by an explosion killing 250 American Naval officers and crew Most Americans believed the Spanish had blown up the Maine, but there was no evidence to prove responsibility. Most Americans blamed Spain- Remember the Maine! To War with Spain!

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19 Yellow Journalism-journalists provoke war with Spain Yellow Journalist promoters: William Randolph Hurst- publisher of the New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer- publisher of The World Yellow Journalism is the use of sensational, half-true headlines in order to steer public opinion in favor of war against Spain

20 YELLOW JOURNALISM CARTOON WHERE THE TERM YELLOW JOURNALISM CAME FROM IN 1898 NEWSPAPERS PROVIDED THE PUBLIC WITH INFORMATION. PEOPLE LACKED THE ABILITY TO VERIFY IF THE STORIES WERE BIASED OR INACCURATE AND THEREFORE RELIED UPON NEWSPAPERS TO TELL THE TRUTH. PULITZER AND HEARST TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE PUBLICS IGNORANCE BY TWISTING THE TRUTH TO SELL MORE NEWSPAPERS. SENSATIONALIZED STORIES WERE FEATURED HEAVILY IN THEIR NEWSPAPERS SINCE EXCITING HEADLINES INCREASED CIRCULATION.

21 Yellow journalists were quick to blame the Spanish

22 The Early weeks of the war The US demanded Spain grant independence to the Cubans and explain the Maine incident Negotiations failed and the US declared war on Spain on April 25, 1898 By August, The US Navy defeated Spain in the Philippines June ,000 US troops arrived in Cuba

23 US GATLING GUNS: AN EARLY TYPE OF MACHINE GUN

24 The Defeat of Spain and American Casualties The Rough Riders- cowboys led by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt took strategic San Juan Hill in Santiago, Cuba (July 1st) By July 3rd, the Spanish were defeated in all of Cuba

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27 BATTLE SCENE WITH TEDDY ROOSEVELT ON THE HORSE

28 The Defeat of Spain and American Casualties (contd) July 4th- US took Puerto Rico from Spain August 12th- Spain surrendered 385 Americans killed in action, another 5,000 soldiers died of malaria, yellow fever and food poisoning from tainted meat

29 Aftermath of the War and the Emergence of the US Imperialism in the Early 1900s A Splendid Little War Treaty of Paris of Cuba gets independence (but US controlled). The US gets Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam for $20 million dollars (10 million people, 100,000 sq. miles) paid to Spain Anti-Imperialist League-some Americans felt it was wrong for the US to control other people and their lands for financial gain

30 US FORCES CONQUER THE PHILIPPINES

31 US OCCUPIES TWO MORE SPANISH COLONIAL POSSESSIONS

32 THE US BECOMES AN IMPERIAL POWER HAWAII: 1898 MIDWAY ISLAND: 1867 WAKE ISLAND: 1898 GUAM: 1898 JOHNSTON ISLAND: 1898 PALMYRA ISLAND: 1898 SAMOA ISLAND: 1899 PHILIPPINES: 1898 PUERTO RICO: 1898 What is happening in this cartoon?

33 Early 1900s Presidents Imperialistic Policies

34 Theodore Roosevelt- The Big Stick Policy Speak softly and carry a big stick- make peace with other nations, but build a strong international presence that would ensure American economic prosperity Roosevelt Corollary- gave the US the right to act as a police power in Latin America to protect American interests

35 WHAT INTERNATIONAL ROLE DID ROOSEVELT ENVISION FOR THE UNITED STATES?

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37 US INTERESTS TURNED TOWARD CENTRAL AMERICA AND A QUICKER WAY OF MOVING SHIPS BETWEEN THE EAST AND WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA 15,000 MILES

38 ADVANTAGE OF AN ISTHMIAN CANAL 00 miles

39 PANAMA, A PROVINCE OF COLOMBIA, WAS CHOSEN FOR THE SITE OF THE PROPOSED CANAL

40 TWO POLITICAL CARTOONS ON COLOMBIAS REFUSAL TO ACCEPT TRS PURCHASE OFFER PRICE OF $40 MILLION IN 2002 $40 MILLION WOULD BE $830 MILLION

41 Construction of the canal

42 PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT VISITS THE CANAL CONSTRUCTION SITE IN 1906

43 1914 Opening of the Panama Canal

44 Panama canal today

45 Theodore Roosevelt- The Open Door Policy To keep the door open for all nations to trade with China- especially America

46 OPEN DOOR POLICY

47 William Howard Taft- Dollar Diplomacy Taft ordered US troops to Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Mexico in order to force, e-hem encourage foreign countries to do business with the USA Some people saw this as us bullying other countries President William Howard Taft

48 Woodrow Wilson- Moral Diplomacy The US should champion Democracy (freedom) and self- determination for all nations even by interfering in other nations affairs President Woodrow Wilson


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