Presentation on theme: "The Spanish-American War and the Growth of US Imperialism"— Presentation transcript:
1The Spanish-American War and the Growth of US Imperialism
2TRADITIONAL UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY WAS ISOLATIONIST “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world”FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS: GEORGE WASHINGTON IN 1796 CAUTIONED THE NATION TO STAY OUT OF WORLD (EUROPEAN) AFFAIRS AND NOT GET INVOLVED IN THEIR WARS. IT WAS US FOREIGN POLICY TO AVOID THESE ENTANGLEMENTS AFTER WW I. US POLICY.PRESIDENT GEORGE WASHINGTON, 1796
3FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS: GEORGE WASHINGTON IN 1796 CAUTIONED THE NATION TO STAY OUT OF WORLD (EUROPEAN) AFFAIRS AND NOT GET INVOLVED IN THEIR WARS. IT WAS US FOREIGN POLICY TO AVOID THESE ENTANGLEMENTS AFTER WW I. US POLICY.
4Most of the 19th century was spent exploring and settling the western frontier of the United States, this changed the perception of American boundariesMENTION MANIFEST DESTINY AS A DRIVING FORCE IN AMERICANS CONQUERING THE CONTINENT.
5Manifest Destiny IdeaManifest Destiny was the idea that White Americans were a superior people and had a right/destiny to control the North American continentBy 1890, the dream of the Manifest Destiny was complete. US Census Bureau announced the frontier was gone and US was now settled.Many Americans believed growth and expansion (Manifest Destiny) should now go beyond the continent into the rest of the world.
6“Manifest destiny” extended beyond the borders of the united states
7DEFINITION OF IMPERIALISM The foreign policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political power and control over other nations.
8Why Expand the American Empire into other countries (imperialism? To sell American manufactured goods overseasIncrease American glory and prestige in the world-gain respectTo spread democracy and Christianity to foreign lands- “The White Man’s Burden”To stay in competition with the Imperialistic European countries
10“I should welcome almost any war for I think this country needs one “I should welcome almost any war for I think this country needs one.” Theodore Roosevelt
11“It has been a splendid little war; begun with the highest motives, carried on with magnificent intelligence and spirit, favored by that fortune which loves the brave.” John Hay, US Secretary of State
12Going to war with Spain was “like robbing an old gypsy woman in a vacant lot at night after a fair.” Sherwood Anderson, American author
13“The truth is, I didn't want the Philippines and when they came to us as a gift from the gods, I did not know what to do with them sought counsel from all sides-- Democrats as well as Republicans—but got little help. I am not ashamed to tell you, gentlemen, that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance And one night late it came to me this way: (1) that we could not give them back to Spain—that would be cowardly and dishonorable; (2) that we could not turn them over to France or Germany—our commercial rivals in the Orient-- that would be bad business and discreditable; (3) that we could not leave them to themselves—they were unfit for self-government—and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain's was; and (4) that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God's grace do the very best we could by them And then I went to bed, and went to sleep and slept soundly.”President William McKinley
14PROBLEMS BETWEEN CUBA AND THEIR SPANISH RULERS DOMINATE AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURYCUBAASK STUDENTS HOW FAR CUBA IS FROM THE USA? ARE THEY FAMILIAR WITH PROBLEMS THE US HAS HAD WITH CUBA IN MODERN TIMES?CUBA, A COLONY OF SPAIN SINCE THE 1500'S, THE CUBAN PEOPLE REVOLTED WHICH LED TO YEARS OF WARFARE, U.S. BECAME INVOLVED
16The Cuban Revolution and the Maine Incident 1894-Cubans revolted against repressive Spanish ruleSpaniards had placed Cubans in “reconcentration” campsAmerica had much invested in Cuban sugar plantationsThe USS Maine Explosion- (Feb 1898) US battleship rocked by an explosion killing 250 American Naval officers and crewMost Americans believed the Spanish had blown up the Maine, but there was no evidence to prove responsibility.Most Americans blamed Spain- “Remember the Maine! To War with Spain!”
18Yellow Journalism-journalists provoke war with Spain Yellow Journalist promoters: William Randolph Hurst- publisher of the New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer- publisher of The WorldYellow Journalism is the use of sensational, half-true headlines in order to steer public opinion in favor of war against Spain
19CARTOON WHERE THE TERM “YELLOW JOURNALISM” CAME FROM IN 1898 NEWSPAPERS PROVIDED THE PUBLIC WITH INFORMATION. PEOPLE LACKED THE ABILITY TO VERIFY IF THE STORIES WERE BIASED OR INACCURATE AND THEREFORE RELIED UPON NEWSPAPERS TO TELL THE TRUTH. PULITZER AND HEARST TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE PUBLIC’S IGNORANCE BY TWISTING THE TRUTH TO SELL MORE NEWSPAPERS. SENSATIONALIZED STORIES WERE FEATURED HEAVILY IN THEIR NEWSPAPERS SINCE EXCITING HEADLINES INCREASED CIRCULATION.PULITZER AND HEARST , TWO NEWSPAPER CHAIR OWNERS WHO COMPETED AGAINST EACH OTHER BY PRINTING STORIES DESIGNED TO GET PEOPLE EXCITED AND WANT TO GO TO WAR WITH SPAINCARTOON WHERE THE TERM “YELLOW JOURNALISM” CAME FROM
20Yellow journalists were quick to blame the Spanish YELLOW JOURNALISTS WERE QUICK TO PUT THE BLAME ON SPAIN BUT LATER RESEARCH SHOWED IT WAS PROBABLY AN ACCIDENT.
21The Early weeks of the war The US demanded Spain grant independence to the Cubans and explain the Maine incidentNegotiations failed and the US declared war on Spain on April 25, 1898By August, The US Navy defeated Spain in the PhilippinesJune ,000 US troops arrived in Cuba
23The Defeat of Spain and American Casualties The Rough Riders- cowboys led by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt took strategic San Juan Hill in Santiago, Cuba (July 1st)By July 3rd, the Spanish were defeated in all of Cuba
27The Defeat of Spain and American Casualties (con’td) July 4th- US took Puerto Rico from SpainAugust 12th- Spain surrendered385 Americans killed in action, another 5,000 soldiers died of malaria, yellow fever and food poisoning from tainted meat
28Aftermath of the War and the Emergence of the US Imperialism in the Early 1900s “A Splendid Little War”Treaty of Paris of Cuba gets independence (but US controlled). The US gets Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam for $20 million dollars (10 million people, 100,000 sq. miles) paid to SpainAnti-Imperialist League-some Americans felt it was wrong for the US to control other people and their lands for financial gain
29US FORCES CONQUER THE PHILIPPINES PHILIPPINES, SPANISH ISLANDS THAT WERE TAKEN OVER BY AMERICA AFTER THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR.
30US OCCUPIES TWO MORE SPANISH COLONIAL POSSESSIONS GUAM AND PUERTO RICO, ISLANDS TAKEN OVER BY THE U.S. AFTER THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
31THE US BECOMES AN IMPERIAL POWER HAWAII: 1898MIDWAY ISLAND: 1867WAKE ISLAND: 1898GUAM: 1898JOHNSTON ISLAND: 1898PALMYRA ISLAND: 1898SAMOA ISLAND: 1899PHILIPPINES: 1898PUERTO RICO: 1898“WELL I HARDLY KNOW WHICH TO TAKE FIRST”. Uncle Sam is being served by President McKinley.What is happening in this cartoon?
33Theodore Roosevelt- “The Big Stick Policy” “Speak softly and carry a big stick”- make peace with other nations, but build a strong international presence that would ensure American economic prosperityRoosevelt Corollary- gave the US the right to act as a police power in Latin America to “protect American interests”
34WHAT INTERNATIONAL ROLE DID ROOSEVELT ENVISION FOR THE UNITED STATES? TR AS A POLICE OFFICER USING THE “BIG STICK” ON CENTRAL AMERICAN NATIONS.
35MONROE DOCTRINE, ISSUED BY PRESIDENT MONROE IN 1823, IT FORBADE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW COLONIES IN THE AMERICASVENEZUELA CRISIS, TWO DISPUTES BETWEEN BRITAIN AND VENEZUELA AND LATER SEVERAL NATIONS AND VENEZUELA, THE U.S. STEPPEDIN AND WE WERE SEEN AS A POWER IN THE REGIONROOSEVELT COROLLARY, TR ADDED THIS TO THE MONROE DOCTRINE STATING THAT THE US COULD INTERVENE (BECOME INVOLVED) WHEN THE STABILITY OF ANY LATIN AMERICAN NATION WAS IN QUESTION
36US INTERESTS TURNED TOWARD CENTRAL AMERICA AND A QUICKER WAY OF MOVING SHIPS BETWEEN THE EAST AND WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA15,000 MILESTHE VOYAGE FROM THE ATLANTIC SEABOARD TO THE PACIFIC WAS OVER 15,000 MILES AND COULD TAKE MONTHS TO COMPLETE.
37ADVANTAGE OF AN ISTHMIAN CANAL 00 milesISTHMIAN CANAL, U.S. WANTED TO BUILD A CANAL ACROSS A NARROW PART OF CENTRAL AMERICA TO CONNECT THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC OCEANS AND AVOID THE MONTHS IT TOOK FOR SHIPS TO TRAVEL AROUND THE TIP OF SOUTH AMERICA. REDLINE SHOWS THE GREATLY REDUCED TRAVEL/TIME DISTANCE A CANAL WOULD BRING.HAY-PAUNCEFOTE TREATY, 1901, U.S. AND GREAT BRITAIN AGREED THAT THE U.S. WOULD BE GIVEN SOLE RIGHT TO CONSTRUCT, CONTROL, AND DEFEND A CENTRAL AMERICAN CANAL
38PANAMA, A PROVINCE OF COLOMBIA, WAS CHOSEN FOR THE SITE OF THE PROPOSED CANAL PANAMA, THE PLACE CHOSEN TO BUILD THE ISTHMIAN CANAL AFTER THE NICARAGUA ROUTE WAS REJECTED IN 1902.
39TWO POLITICAL CARTOONS ON COLOMBIA’S REFUSAL TO ACCEPT TR’S PURCHASE OFFER PRICE OF $40 MILLION HOW IS THE US SHOWN IN THESE CARTOONS? HOW ARE COLOMBIA AND OTHER NATIONS PORTRAYED?IN 2002 $40 MILLION WOULD BE $830 MILLION
40Construction of the canal PANAMA CANAL, ONE OF THE GREAT ENGINEERING FEATS OF ALL TIME IT SHORTENED THE TRAVEL DISTANCE BETWEEN NEW YORK AND S.F. BY 8,000 MILES
41PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT VISITS THE CANAL CONSTRUCTION SITE IN 1906 TR VISITS THE CANAL CONSTRUCTION SITE IN 1906
44Theodore Roosevelt- “The Open Door Policy” To keep the “door open” for all nations to trade with China- especially America
45OPEN DOOR POLICYOPEN DOOR POLICY, ALL NATIONS WOULD HAVE EQUAL TRADING RIGHTS IN CHINA, SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN HAY PROPOSED THIS INASK STUDENTS TO EXPLAIN WHAT IS GOING ON IN THIS POLITICAL CARTOON.
46William Howard Taft- “Dollar Diplomacy” Taft ordered US troops to Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Mexico in order to force, e-hem “encourage” foreign countries to do business with the USASome people saw this as us bullying other countriesPresident William Howard Taft
47Woodrow Wilson- “Moral Diplomacy” The US should champion Democracy (freedom) and self-determination for all nations even by interfering in other nations’ affairsPresident Woodrow Wilson