1 Chapter 16 – Expansion Overseas (1890 – 1914) US becomes a world power through trade and military force!
2 Learning ObjectivesDiscuss how the United States became involved in Asia.Explain why the United States needed a port in the Pacific.Discuss the role of the United States in the Spanish-American War.Describe Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy.Explain why the Panama Canal was built.Explore the political views of Jose Marti.
3 Taking Control of Hawaii In the 1800’s Hawaii was a free nation. American planters bought large area of land for growing sugarcane.King gave use of Hawaiian port of Pearl Harbor.1891 Queen Liliuokalani became ruler of Hawaii and did not like US having so much power.Did not agree with use of Pearl Harbor.1893 Americans (US Marines) led a revolt against the Queen.Congress made Hawaii a US protectorate.1898 US annexed Hawaii.Protectorate –Annexed –*What did the U.S. do when Queen Liliuokalani tried to take back control of Hawaii?
4 Section 1 – Looking Toward Asia Different Ideas in the USAmericans that felt it was wrong to try and control other countries.Isolationists –Americans in favor of growing expansion.Spread American customs.Increase economic strength.Increase trade since American farmers and businesses were producing more than people in the US could buy.*What were the arguments for an against U.S. expansion?Opening Trade With JapanEmperor opens up trade with US.Japan began building factories and building up Navy.Japan needed US steel for and oil for ships.US could buy cloth and other products from Japan.US needed a port in the Pacific Ocean so ships could refuel between the west coast of the US and Asia.Pearl Harbor was a port on Oahu (one of the Hawaiian Islands).*Why did the U.S. need a port in the Pacific Ocean?
5 US wanted to trade with China. Relations with ChinaUS wanted to trade with China.Weak nation due to little industry and fighting wars.US and Great Britain want Chinese rulers to make Open Door Policy.Open Door Policy –1900 Boxer Rebellion – organization of made up of Chinese people trying to get rid of foreigners.US and several other countries use force to end the Rebellion.*How did the U.S. and Great Britain try to open trade with China?The Great White Fleet1880 – early 1900’s US enlarges Navy.Needed to protect merchant ships as trade increased with foreign countries.1907 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt wanted to show the world US was becoming a great power / sent out 16 battleships “Great White Fleet,” on a world tour.*Why did President Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet on tour?
6 Section 2 – The Spanish American War Cubans Revolt Against SpainBy late 1800’s Spain no longer world power.Cuba and Puerto Rico under Spain’s control.After Cubans rebelled against Spain in 1868 many leaders fled (Jose Marti).Cubans fought Spain on and off for nearly 30 years. (Marti returned in 1895 to fight)Many Americans sided with Cubans since reminded them of their own fight for independence against Great Britain.US newspapers practiced yellow journalism, or<Jose Marti*Why did many American side with the Cubans in their fight against Spain?
7 President William McKinley sent battleship Maine to Havana. Explosion of the MainePresident William McKinley sent battleship Maine to Havana.Wanted to protect Americans in Cuba.2/15/1898 Maine exploded in Havana Harbor.Approx. 260 Americans sailors killed.Many Americans blamed explosion on Spain (years later found it to be an accident).Headline “Remember the Maine!” increased American anger towards Spain.4/25/1898 US declared war on Spain.<US battleship Maine*Why did U.S. newspapers print the headline “Remember the Maine!”?
8 Spanish-American War lasted less than 3 months. Fighting the WarSpanish-American War lasted less than 3 months.Fought in Philippines and Cuba.In Cuba, Theodore Roosevelt leader of army unit called the Rough Riders became a hero.Won a major battle at San Juan HillSoon after US Navy defeated Spanish fleet at Santiago.Treaty of Paris ended the war in 1898.US gained control of Cuba and Puerto Rico (Caribbean) and Philippines and other island in the Pacific.*What areas did the U.S. gain in the war against Spain?The United States, a World PowerUS victory over Spain made US a world power.Controlled lands from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean.Still mixed feelings about controlling other countries.Some Americans still against imperialism –*How did the U.S. become a world power?
9 New ResponsibilitiesUS needed to decide how to govern areas now controlled.Cuba became a protectorate.Puerto Rico had limited independence.Jones Act of 1917 made it a US territory.Philippines limited government.*What decisions were made about Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines?
10 Section 3 – The “Big Stick” and the Panama Canal The Need for a New RoutePresident Theodore Roosevelt believed that US should take action in the world.“Speak softly and carry a big stick.” Roosevelt meantForeign policy isPresident Roosevelt wanted to build a canal across Central America that would shorten the trip from the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.Plan to build canal through Panama (part of the country of Colombia.Roosevelt made offer for right to build canal and Colombia said “no.”*Why did Roosevelt want to build a canal across Central America?Building the Canal1903 people of Panama rebelled against Colombia.Roosevelt sent ships and troops to help rebels.Colombia not strong enough to fight US so gave Panama independence.Panama gave US right-of-way across Isthmus of Panama.An Isthmus is
11 1914 1st ship passed through canal. Building the Canal was one of biggest projects ever done – took thousands of men 9 years to build.*How did President Roosevelt get the right to build the Panama Canal?The Canal Opens1914 1st ship passed through canal.US now controlled shortest route between Atlantic and Pacific oceans.US one of most powerful nations on earth.1979 many American lived and worked in Panama Canal Zone.The Roosevelt CorollaryPresident Roosevelt wanted US to be able to settle problems in countries in Western Hemisphere.1904 Roosevelt Corollary added to Monroe Doctrine.A corollary isIt said thatNext 30 years US used Roosevelt Corollary as an excuse to interfere in the affairs of Latin American countries.*What was the Roosevelt Corollary?