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Prabu Doss.K Perception Prabu Doss.K

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Presentation on theme: "Prabu Doss.K Perception Prabu Doss.K"— Presentation transcript:

1 Prabu Doss.K
Perception Prabu Doss.K

2 How we see the world around us
Perception How we see the world around us

3 Elements of Perception
Sensation Absolute threshold Differential threshold Subliminal perception

4 Sensation The immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli (product, package, advt, brand name..) A perfectly unchanging environment provides little to no sensation at all!

5 The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation
Absolute Threshold The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation

6 Weber’s Law( Differential Threshold) (just noticeable difference)
A theory concerning the perceived differentiation between similar stimuli of varying intensities (i.e., the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different).

7 Betty Crocker

8 Lenovo- Early 2006

9 Lenovo- Early 2007

10 Lenovo-today

11 Campbell’s Soup

12 Subliminal Perception
Perception of very weak or rapid stimuli received below the level of conscious awareness Subliminal techniques - Embeds: tiny figures that are inserted into magazine advertising by using high-speed photography or airbrushing Does subliminal perception work? - little evidence that subliminal stimuli can bring about desired behavioural change 1957: Drive-In Movie Theater, New Jersey Popcorn sales- up 58% Coke sales- up 16%

13 Subliminal Ad

14 Aspects of Perception Perceptual Selection Perceptual Organization
Perceptual Interpretation

15 Perceptual Selection Consumers subconsciously exercise a great deal of selectivity as to which stimuli they perceive (e.g) Going to a shopping mall Stimuli selection is based on two factors Consumers’ previous experience Consumers’ motives (their needs, desires, interest)

16 Concepts Concerning Selective Perception
Selective Exposure: Advt that reassure of them of their wisdom of their purchase decision (sympathetic,avoid painful or threatening advt) Selective Attention: Great deal of selectivity in terms of attention Consumers note ads for products that would satisfy their needs and disregard those in which they have no interest

17 Concepts Concerning Selective Perception
Perceptual Defense: Subconsciously screen out stimuli that they find psychologically threatening, even though expose have already taken place Perceptual Blocking: Protect themselves from being bombarded by simply turning –out. Zapping of TV commercials with remote controls

18 Aspects of Perception Perceptual Selection Perceptual Organization
Perceptual Interpretation

19 Perceptual Organization
People do not experience the numerous stimuli they select from the environment as separate or discrete sensations Tend to organize them into groups (as unified whole) The principles underlying perceptual organization is referred to as ‘Gestalt Psychology’ (Gestalt in German means pattern/configuration)

20 Three basic Principles of Perceptual organization
Figure and ground Grouping Closure

21 Figure & Ground Stimuli that contrasted with the environment are more likely to be noticed People have a tendency to organize their perceptions into figure and ground relationships Advertisers have to plan their advertisements carefully that the stimuli they want is noted as a figure and not as a ground Sometimes marketers run ads that confuse the consumer because there is no clear indication of which is figure and which is ground


23 Figure- Ground


25 Grouping & Closure Form a unified picture or impression
Cell phone numbers They have a need for closure, express this by organizing their perceptions so that they form a complete picture A classical study found incomplete tasks are better remembered than completed tasks Zeigernik effect- prevention of a task results in tension that manifests in improved memory for incomplete tasks

26 Closure

27 Closure

28 Prabu Doss.K
Perception Prabu Doss.K

29 Should subliminal advertising be encouraged or banned
Topic for discussion Should subliminal advertising be encouraged or banned

30 Closure

31 Figure - ground

32 Perceptual Distortion- Influences
Physical Appearance- attractive men perceived as successful businessmen, attractive models are more persuasive & have more positive influence Stereotypes- Tend to carry a picture in mind First Impression- A shampoo commercial “You’ll never have a second chance to make a first impression” Jumping to Conclusions- Hearing the beginning of the commercial they draw conclusions Halo Effect- Evaluation of a single object, person on multitude of dimensions is based on one or few dimensions

33 Perceived Price How a consumer perceive a price, has a strong influence or both purchase intention & purchase satisfaction Reference Price- any price a consumer uses as a basis for comparison in judging other prices External Reference Price- advertiser try to persuade a consumer to buy Internal Reference Price- retrieved by consumer from memory Plausible low- well within the range of acceptable market price Plausible High- outer limits but not beyond the realm of believability Implausible High- well above the consumers perceived range of acceptable market price

34 Consumer Imagery Positioning: Repositioning: Perceptual Mapping:
A research technique that enables marketers to plot graphically consumers’ perceptions concerning product attributes of specific brands

35 Perceived Quality Judge quality on the basis of various informational cues, some are intrinsic and some extrinsic Intrinsic- physical characteristics of the product such as size, color, flavor, aroma Extrinsic- Based on pricing , packaging, advertising and even peer pressure German engineering is excellent Japanese cars are reliable American make is superior

36 Perceived Risk Uncertainty that consumers face when they cannot foresee the consequence of their purchase decision Functional Risk- performance of a product Physical Risk- risk to self & others Financial Risk- Will it worth its cost Social Risk- Poor choice may result in social embarrassment Psychological Risk- “Will I be embarrassed to invite friends to this tiny apartment?” Time Risk- time spent in product search

37 Perception of Risk Varies
High-risk Perceivers- described as narrow categorizers because they limit their choice to safe alternatives Low-risk Perceivers- described as broad categorizers because they tend to make choices from wider alternatives

38 How Consumers Handle Risk
Consumers seek information Consumers are brand loyal Consumers select by brand Image Consumers rely on store Image Consumers buy the most expensive model Consumers seek reassurance


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