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Chapter 4 Consumer Perception Consumer Perception.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Consumer Perception Consumer Perception."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Consumer Perception Consumer Perception

2 What Is Perception? The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensation into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world “How we see the world around us” Two individuals may be exposed to the same stimuli but recognize, select, organize and interpret them differently based on their own needs, values and expectations Kind of like two people looking at the same cloud formations and seeing two different things…

3 Consumer perceptions are vital to marketers and often underlie the success or failure of products in the marketplace In order to understand how perception affects the marketing process, we need to understand some of the basic concepts that underlie the perceptual process Examples? Quality of Japanese vs. American cars Perception of Volvos as a very safe car Perception may not coincide with reality, but if the perception is strong enough the reality doesn’t matter In Japan, the perception that American cars are inferior is so strong, it doesn’t matter what the reality is!

4 Three Concepts Related to Perception
Exposure The act of deliberately or accidentally coming into contact with stimuli Attention The allocation of mental capacity to a stimulus Sensation Responses of the sensory receptors to a stimulus and transmission of this information to the brain With respect to ads, how are we exposed to them? Turn on radio or television, go to a store, or simply look out the car window when driving Do we necessarily pay attention to them? Let’s focus on this third concept, Sensation

5 Sensation Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to simple stimuli The human organs that receive sensory inputs are called sensory receptors What is “sensation”? What is the stimulus? In this case, an ad, a package, even a brand name Could also be a smell or a sound What are some of the sensory receptors?

6 Interpretation of Inputs
Sensory Systems Eye Sight Ear Sound Nose Smell Mouth Taste Skin Touch Exposure to Raw Data According to your book, the process looks something like this Processing of Inputs Interpretation of Inputs

7 Vision Vision is the dominant human sense, so we know more about it than the other senses Vision is known to stimulate physiological changes Warm hues (red, orange) increase blood pressure and heart rate Cool hues (blue, green) have the opposite effect Orange is used in fast food restaurants to increase hunger Blues and greens are used in hospitals to reduce patient anxiety OK, let’s look at each of the senses and see how they relate to marketing Let’s start with vision, because… What are the implications of these differences in terms of marketing goods or services?

8 Smell Smell is the most direct of the senses
No sense evokes memory more than smell Exposure to odors remembered from childhood can induce mood effects like those experienced in childhood Marketers understand this and build mood effects into products through odors Example? Three of the best-selling perfumes are scented with baby powder—evoking the warm feelings associated with the fragrance of baby powder What about “new car” smell? Others?

9 Research has shown that a pleasant odor increases lingering and the amount of time spent in a store
Another aspect of smell is that…

10 Taste Taste has an obvious impact on the success of food and beverages
North Americans appear to have a preference for fatty foods Thus the success of fast food and pizza restaurants Culture plays a powerful role in determining taste Are tastes the same in all countries? No, Culture plays… Examples? Masai drink cow’s blood Some societies eat stir-fried canine and cat Germans eat rancid cabbage (sauerkraut) French eat snails People eat rodents, grasshoppers, snakes, kangaroos, and bats

11 Sound Sound, in the form of speech and music, is important to marketers Research shows a positive connection between the use of popular songs in ads and consumers’ recall of those ads Research also shows a positive connection between music and store sales and a negative connection between noise and sales What about sound? Is it an important sense in terms of marketing? Too bad, though, that some of the best songs are now associated primarily with commercials (e.g., Gershwin and UAL) What about store music? Is there a connection between music and sales?

12 Touch Physical contact with a product often provides consumers with vital information What about touch? Examples? People often squeeze a melon or feel the texture of a fabric or piece of wood Cashmere sweater or coat—you often see people rubbing it against their skin Others?

13 Input Variation and Sensation
Changes in what we feel, hear, see, etc. at any given time As input increases, the ability to distinguish differences decreases As input decreases, the ability to distinguish differences increases What does “input variation” mean? Is there a relationship between input variation and sensation? Examples? What about all those choices in the salad dressing aisle in the supermarket (recall post-Kenya experience)

14 Consumers easily ignore ads when bombarded by them constantly
Perceptual overloading: the inability to perceive all competing stimuli for one’s attention Perceptual vigilance: the ability to disregard much of the stimulation one receives Consumers easily ignore ads when bombarded by them constantly This may lead to…perceptual Implication for advertisers? Are consumers bombarded by ads?

15 Perceptual Selection Each day consumers are surrounded by stimuli
They are able to subconsciously exercise selectivity over which stimuli they perceive Which stimuli are selected depend on two major factors Consumers’ previous experience (what they are prepared to see) Their motives (needs, desires, interests, etc.) Which leads to this concept: Example? When you’re driving down the highway, do you begin to ignore the radio ads? The billboards? Supermarket as an example (you can ignore all the salad dressings because you know which one you want!)

16 Some Important Concepts Regarding Selective Perception
Selective Exposure Consumers actively seek out messages they find pleasant or are sympathetic to and avoid painful or threatening ones Selective Attention Consumers exercise selectivity over attention given to commercial stimuli; they have a heightened awareness of stimuli that meet needs/interests and minimal awareness of irrelevant stimuli Examples? How about political ads during elections? Example? Men might gloss over a Ron Popeil infomercial for a dehydrator but stop channel surfing at a golf infomercial; same might go for walking down a street looking in store windows Environmental Stimuli Selective Exposure Selective Attention Perception

17 Selective Interpretation
The interpretation of stimuli is also uniquely individual, because it is based on what people expect to see in light of previous experience, their motives and interests As we’ve seen, perception is a personal phenomenon.

18 Attention Stimulation
Adaptation Levels Indifference to a stimulus to which one has become accustomed Attention Stimulation Placement, timing, and presentation of stimuli so that target consumers are most likely exposed to them Example? Television commercials!! Again with television, advertising goods most appropriate for the people likely to be watching the show

19 Threshold Levels of Perception
Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs (e.g., eyes, ears, etc.) to a stimulus (e.g., an ad, a package, a brand name) Sensation is provoked by changes in sensory input The more stimuli that are present, the greater the change must be, and vice versa (e.g., pin dropping) OK, we already know that… Further… Thus…

20 Differential threshold (“just noticeable difference”)
For marketers’ purposes, there are two levels of sensory input (thresholds) of importance: Absolute threshold Differential threshold (“just noticeable difference”) What are they?

21 1. The absolute threshold
The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation I.e., the lowest level of stimuli at which a person can detect a difference between something and nothing What is it? The “pin drop” concept

22 Over time and exposure, the absolute threshold drops as consumers “get used to” a stimulus (sensory adaptation) Marketers need to increase/change sensory input in order to keep the attention of their target market E.g. to television ads; it’s going to have to get quieter and quieter in order to hear that pin drop! What is the implication for marketers? How can they do that? Increase the volume (they already do that, unfortunately) Magazine ads include smells

23 2. Differential Threshold (JND)
The minimum change in sensation necessary for a person to detect it 19th century German scientist Ernst Weber discovered that the JND between two stimuli was not absolute, but varied according to the intensity of the first stimulus Weber’s Law thus states that the greater the initial stimulus, the greater the additional stimulus needs to be in order to be noticeable What is it? Examples? Let’s say a household cleaning product is being marketed as having “more lemon scent.” The stronger the initial scent, the greater the increase is going to have to be to be noticed. Or a potato chip with no salt. Just a little bit of salt added is going to be very noticeable. But as the salt content increases, the greater the increase needs to be in order to be noticed

24 Implications for marketers
Manufacturers and marketers try to determine the JND for their products There are two primary reasons So that negative changes (e.g., reduction in product size or quality or increases in price) are not noticeable So that product improvements (improved packaging, larger quantities, lower price) are very apparent What are they?

25 Ethical issue Reductions in quantity and size may not be reflected in different packaging Marketers may attempt to differentiate product lines that are minimally different by increasing price differences between the lines Thus consumers perceive the lines as different when they are not So you see any ethical issues here? Is this deceptive? Bausch & Lomb example (see press release in file)

26 Perception and Image The view or portrait of a product, brand, store or company created in consumers’ minds Image is a major factor in consumers’ choice of one brand or store over another When we talk about “image” in this context, what are we talking about? Examples? What’s the image associated with Dodge and Buick? Lexus and Infiniti? Honda and Toyot? Wal-Mart/Sears/Penney’s vs. Saks, Lord & Taylor, etc. Old Navy vs. Banana Republic? And it’s the same company! What image does LL Bean project? Why? Nordstrom’s? Is image a factor in a consumer’s choice of stores?

27 Images may be created around a number of categories: Economy Safety
Reliability Pleasure Status Distinctiveness Examples? VW, Volvo, BMW, Honda, Cadillac, VW again with Beetle

28 Subliminal Perception
Research shows that people are stimulated below their level of conscious awareness—they can perceive stimuli without being consciously aware they are doing so Federal Communications Commission was concerned enough to ban it from television and radio One last issue on perception is the issue of…. I’m sure you’ve all heard about it. Is there such a thing? But does it work the way it has been suggested? What was the event that first stirred interest in this topic? 1957 movie theatre experiment (see text p. 126) Has this experiment ever been successfully replicated? No! In fact, it has even been suggested that the theatre owner lied about the experiment. The link is to an interesting article on the web about this experiment At present it is the general consensus that subliminal advertising does not influence consumers in their purchasing decisions But what about all the sexual connotations in ice cubes in liquor ads?

29 In the 70’s interest was renewed due to claims advertisers were using subliminal embeds in print ads
The most common claims involved the use of suggestive symbols in ice cubes floating in a pictured drink Research indicates sexually oriented embeds do not influence consumer preferences Because there is no evidence it works, there are no laws or regulations prohibiting it

30 Link to Subliminal Advertising Websites
However, anyone interested in the topic can begin with this interesting website:

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