Presentation on theme: "Composting in Virginia"— Presentation transcript:
1 Composting in Virginia Overview of Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations pertaining to Compost activitiesKathryn Perszyk, Solid Waste Permit CoordinatorVirginia Department of Environmental Quality
3 VSWMR DefinitionsComposting - manipulation of the natural process of decomposition of organic materials to increase the rate of decomposition.FeedstocksCategory I – plant or plant-derived pre-consumer materialsCategory II – animal-derived wasteCategory III – animal and post-consumer food wastes with pathogen potentialCategory IV - otherVermicomposting - the controlled and managed process by which live worms convert organic residues into fertile excrement.
4 VSWMR Definitions cont. Vegetative waste – decomposable materials generated by yard and lawn care or land-clearing activities and includes, but is not limited to, leaves, grass trimmings, woody wastes such as shrub and tree prunings, bark, limbs, roots, and stumps.Yard waste – a subset of vegetative waste and means decomposable waste materials generated by yard and lawn care and includes leaves, grass trimmings, brush, wood chips, and shrub and tree trimmings. Yard waste shall not include roots or stumps that exceed 12 inches in diameter.
5 VSWMR ExemptionsComposting sewage sludge at treatment plant of generation w/o addition of other solid wastesComposting of household waste at residence of generationComposting for educational purposes, no more than 100 cy of material at any time; > 100 cy requires DEQ approvalUniversities composting dining hall wastes, tie to classFestivals with public education componentR&D projects, ex. DOT R&D assessing effectiveness of animal mortality composting
6 VSWMR Exemptions cont.Composting animal carcasses at farm of generationGM : On-site composting of routine animal mortalityComposting veg/yard wastes generated on site where compost generated is used on siteComposting pre-consumer food waste/kitchen culls generated on site, composted in containersVermicomposting of Cat I, II, III materials in containers; offsite materials > 100 cy requires DEQ approvalComposting sewage sludge w/ or w/o solid waste when permitted under VPA or VPDES permit
7 Items to considerBroader exemption to allow composting of all on-site generated materials, maybe tied to a qty of wasteRestaurants composting all food wastes, not just pre- consumer, in enclosed containersIndustries generating organic wastes, such as spent hops from beer productionFederal bases composting various on-site wastesConsider allowing agricultural operations and/or veg waste composters to compost poultry litter under exemption (poultry are not herbivorous)
9 1. Agricultural Operations Accepting yard waste generated off-site, provided that:Total time for composting and storage < 18 mo prior to field application or saleOnly yard waste is receivedTotal yard waste received < 6,000 cy in any consecutive 12-mo periodAll applicable local ordinances/standards are satisfiedOperation poses no nuisance or potential threat to HHEOwner submits DEQ Form YW-3
10 2. Agricultural Operations Accepting only yard wastes and manures from herbivorous animals generated offsite, provided that:Composting area setbacks300 ft setback from property boundary1,000 ft setback from occupied dwellingCannot be located in designated flood plainOperation has at least 1 ac or ground suitable to receive YW for each 150 cy of finished compostTotal time for composting and storage < 18 mo prior to field application or saleQty of offsite manures is limited to achieve C:N ratio of 25:1 to 40:1; manures incorporated w/in 24 hrs of receiptOwner/Operator submits DEQ Form YW-4Annual reporting if > 6,000 cy of waste received in any consecutive12-mo period, DEQ Form YW-2
11 3. Owners of PropertyAccepting yard waste generated offsite for purpose of producing compost, provided that:No more than 500 cy of YW received in any consecutive 12-mo periodNo compensation received for accepting YWAll applicable local ordinances/standards are satisfiedOperation poses no nuisance or potential threat to HHE
13 ApplicabilityOwner/Operators of facilities producing compost from municipal solid waste/refuse or combinations thereof with animal manuresCannot use solid waste containing hazardous waste, regulated medical waste, or nonbiodegradable wasteTypes of facilitiesType A: enclosed vesselType B: windrow or aerated static pile methodAny compost method w/o prior operational performance in the US will require experimental permitCategory I or Category II-IV9 VAC A.
14 Siting RequirementsAdjacent to/have direct access to paved/surfaced roadsMust be outside areas subject to base floodsNo facility shall be closer than:50 ft to it’s property boundary (100 ft buffer to composting activity);200 ft to any residence, health care facility, school, recreational park area, or similar public institution50 ft to any perennial stream or river50 ft to any wetland (applies to storage of solid waste in piles)Sites shall provide adequate room to minimize trafficHave area and terrain to allow for proper run-on, run-off, and leachate managementNo Type B facilities in geologically unstable areas or where site topography is heavily dissected9 VAC
15 Design RequirementsHandling area and equipment to segregate and store noncompostable components; covered area for Cat II-IVAreas for mixing, composting, curing, screening, and storing shall be graded to prevent run-on, collect run-ff, and provided w/ drainage system; hard surfaced if w/in 2ft of high water tableWhere Cat IV is received, or >1,000 total tons/qtr of Cat II & III, all receiving, mixing, composting, curing, screening, and storing shall have 1 of the following:Asphalt or concrete area draining to wastewater storage, treatment, or disposal facilityAsphalt or concrete diked or bermed area for run-on, run- off , leachate control with a sump with either gravity drain or pump system6” lime stabilized clay/soil w/ 1x10-7 cm/sec lab permeability can be substituted for asphalt/concrete12” compacted gravel pad underlain by 60-mil HDPE w/ leachate collection and leak detection9 VAC A.
16 Design Requirements cont. Engineering controls must be installed for Cat I and Type B Cat II-IV sitesSprings, seeps, and other groundwater intrusionsGas, water, or sewage lines under active areasElectrical transmission lines above/below active areasRoads serving the unloading, handling, composting, and storage areas shall be usable under all weather conditions.Cat II-IV facilities shall have:auxiliary power, standby equip, or contingency arrangementsFor uncovered sites, calculations for sizing surface water control features to be based on 1-hr rainfall intensity and 10-yr return period9 VAC A.
17 Finished Product Testing Applicable to Cat II-IV Facilities Amt Finished Compost (tons/365 day period)Frequency*< 3201/yr320 ≤ Amt < 1,6531/qtr(4/yr)1,653 ≤ Amt < 16,5351/60 days (6/yr)≥ 16,5351/mo(12/yr)*After 2 yrs, facility can request a reduced frequencyCompost stability (1 method only)Temperature declineReheat potential using Dewar Compost Self-Heating FlaskSpecific oxygen uptakeSolvitaTM Compost Maturity TestCarbon dioxide evolutionOrganism testing, for Cat III & IV facilities (all methods)Parasites, helmith ovaBacteria pathogens, fecal coliform or Salmonella sp. Bacteria9 VAC A.
18 Finished Product Testing cont. Metals testing for facilities accepting Cat IV feedstocksMetalsConcentration, mg/kg dry solidsArsenic41Cadmium21Copper1,500Lead300Mercury17Molybdenum54Nickel420Selenium28Zinc2,800
19 Permitting: Permit-by-Rule Notice of IntentLetter w/ site and area mapsDisclosure StatementLocal Gov’t certificationCertification of siting standardsCertification of SWMP consistencyOperations Manual CertificateDescription of type of facility and feedstocksP.E. Certificate for:Design/Construction standardsClosure Plan standardsDemonstration of legal controlSCC CertificationClosure cost estimates / proof of FAPublic participation resultsPermit fee ($390)9 VAC A.
20 Fees New Permit & Permit Modification Annual operating fees $390, 9 VACAnnual operating fees$1,200, but subject to annual adjustments based on the Consumer Price Index, 9 VAC
21 Questions? Kathryn Perszyk, SW Permit Coordinator Virginia Department of Environmental Quality(703)