Presentation on theme: "Air Pollution Control « Air Pollution Control Ordinance » ( Chapter 311 ) The Air Pollution Control Ordinance(APCO) is the main legislative framework."— Presentation transcript:
1Air Pollution Control « Air Pollution Control Ordinance » ( Chapter 311 ) The Air Pollution Control Ordinance(APCO) is the main legislative framework governing the control of air pollution activities. Air pollution control regulations are enacted under the APCO for specific air pollution control purposes.
2« Air Pollution Control Regulations » Relevant to the Construction Industry (Construction Dust) Regulation(Specified Processes) Regulation(Smoke) Regulation(Fuel Restriction) Regulation(Open Burning) RegulationUnder the APCO, air pollution emissions from construction activities are subject to the control of these five regulations.
3(Specified Processes) Regulation « Air Pollution Control Regulations » Relevant to the Construction Industry(Specified Processes) RegulationBitumen plantConcrete batching plantBitumen plant with installed capacity exceeding 250 Kg/hr or concrete batching plant with total silo capacity exceeding 50 tonnes (the total silo capacity means the sum of the capacity of all the silos used in the work, be they cement silos, PFA silos or other silos) is defined as a specified process under the APCO. Any person who wants to operate these plants is required to obtain a licence before commencing plant operation. Operator of these plants has to comply with all terms and conditions attached to the licence.
4(Fuel Restriction) Regulation « Air Pollution Control Regulations » Relevant to the Construction Industry(Fuel Restriction) Regulation(Smoke) RegulationUnder the (Smoke) Reg., dark smoke shall not be emitted for continuously more than 3 minutes or more than 6 minutes in any period of 4 hours from any chimney or industrial plants. Dark smoke means smoke with intensity equal to or darker than shade 1 on a Ringelmann Chart. Machinery commonly found in construction sites, namely excavator, air compressor, bulldozer, etc falls under the control of the regulation. Under the (Fuel Restriction) Reg., no person shall use diesel or other liquid fuel that has a sulphur content of more than 0.5% in weight and a viscosity of more than 6 centistokes at 40oC.
5Air Pollution Control (Open Burning) Regulation PurposeProhibit / Control Open Burning ActivitiesEffective date26 Feb 1996The (Open Burning) reg. prohibits open burning of construction waste, rubber tyres, cables for metal salvage and wastes for clearance of a construction site, and restricts all other open burning activities under a permit system.
6Prohibited Open Burning Disposal of construction WasteSite clearanceDisposal of TyresSalvage of metalThese open burning activities are prohibited since they cause serious air pollution.
7Application for Open Burning Permit 1. Allow at least 28 days for application2. The applicant shall prove︰a. an absolute need for the burning;b. there is no other practical alternative means of waste disposal; andc. there will not be adverse environmental impact.3. The Authority may impose terms and conditions in the permit.A permit will only be given for very exceptional case. Application for an open burning permit shall be accompanied by a payment and be made not less than 28 days prior to carrying out the intended open burning. Each application will be seriously assessed and every practical alternative in lieu of open burning will be examined.
8PenaltiesAny person who carries out prohibited open burning commits an offence. Any person who carries out open burning without a permit or in contravention of permit conditions commits an offence. The penalties quoted are the maximum fines.
9(Construction Dust) Regulation » « Air Pollution Control(Construction Dust) Regulation »PurposeEmploy effective dust abatement measures toReduce dust emission,Reduce air nuisance, andImprove general air quality.Set out appropriate dust control measures and make them as standard practice in the construction industry.The Air Pollution Control(Construction Dust) Regulation was put into effect in June EPD had consulted with the construction industry before the enactment of the regulation.
10Classification of Construction Works Three main types of construction works:Notifiable work: building demolition, construction of superstructure, site formation, reclamation, etc.Regulatory work (Notification not required) : road opening /resurfacing, external renovation, slope stabilization.Excluded work (Notification not required) : internal renovation, specified process, etc.Notifiable work is construction work on a larger scale with a potential of substantial dust emission.Regulatory work is relatively short termed and involves only a few construction activities such as power-driven drilling and cutting, earth excavation, loading and unloading of dusty material, etc.Excluded work is usually conducted within a small area and with minor dust emission impact. Prior notification to the EPD is required before carrying out any notifiable work. Such requirement, however, is not required for regulatory and excluded work.
11Notifiable Work Site formation Road construction work Reclamation Work carried out in any part of a tunnel that is within 100 m of any exit to the open airRoad construction workDemolition of a buildingConstruction of building foundationConstruction of building superstructureUnder the regulation, seven types of construction work are defined as notifiable work. Construction of a railway is also regarded as road construction work.
12Notification Form Form NA Air Pollution Control Ordinance (Chapter 311) Notification pursuant to Section 3(1) of the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) RegulationBefore commencing a notifiable work, the contractor responsible for the construction site is required to submit a notification to EPD by completing a Form NA. Detailed particulars including the name of contractor, site address, type of notifiable work and proposed commencement and completion dates shall be provided. A plan showing the site boundary shall also be included in the submission.
13Dust Control Requirement Under the regulation, there is a schedule setting out the dust control measures for various types of construction work and activity. Part I of the schedule lists out the dust control requirements for notifiable work whereas those for regulatory work are in Part II. Part III and Part IV are general dust control requirements for construction site and individual construction activities, which are applicable to all types of construction work unless otherwise specified.
14General Control Requirements Part III of ScheduleGeneral Control RequirementsRequirements in Part III of schedule are applicable to all types of construction work unless otherwise specified.
15General RequirementsStop operating the relevant plant or dusty process if there is breakdown of air pollution control equipment.Avoid using compressed air jet to clean off dust.Suitable dust control equipment or measure should be viewed as one of the essential tools for construction activities. Before carrying out any construction work, make sure the dust control equipment is in good condition or that proper dust control measure is in place.Compressed air jet shall not be used for cleaning or clearing dust from any vehicle, equipment, other materials or person.
16Automatic washing machine Site Boundary and ExitProvide vehicle washing facilities.Vehicle washingAutomatic washing machineHoardingPave the area between site exit & the vehicle washing facilities.Provide 2.4 m hoarding along site boundary.Vehicle washing facilities shall be provided at every discernible vehicle exit and shall include the use of high pressure water jet to wash away dust deposited on the body and wheels of vehicle before leaving the construction site. The use of metal plate to cover the area between site exit and the vehicle washing facilities is considered as an acceptable alternative to paving. The use of rigid and reusable hoarding is highly recommended. Hoarding is not required along site boundary adjoining the sea or river or not directly accessible to the public.
17Main Haul Road (4 or more vehicles passing in any 30 minutes) Pave with concrete, bituminous materials, hard cores, etc. and keep clear of dusty materials; orMaintain entire road surface wet.The purpose of this requirement is to avoid the emission of dust from vehicles traveling on the main haul road in a construction site. Watering vehicles are commonly found in construction site for spraying water on the entire road surface at regular intervals.
18Road Leading Only to A Construction Site Clear dusty materials from the portion of any such road within 30 m of vehicle entrance / exit.The purpose of this requirement is to avoid dust emission from vehicles traveling on road leading to a construction site. Dusty materials should be removed from the portion of road within 30 metres of a discernible vehicle entrance or exit of a construction site. In general flushing by water is usually employed but alternative methods such as sweeping or vacuum cleaning are also acceptable. To avoid causing water pollution, the flushing effluent so generated should be collected and desilted as far as practicable.This requirement is not applicable if the portion of road is not leading solely to the construction site or serves more than one construction site.
19Do not store in open area Store in sheltered area CementBagged cement exceeding 20 nos should be covered or enclosed in area sheltered on the top and the 3 sides.Do not store in open areaStore in sheltered areaProvide coverEvery stock of more than 20 bags of cement or dry pulverized fuel ash shall be covered entirely by impervious sheeting or placed in an area sheltered on the top and the 3 sides.
20Cement Bulk Cement or PFA stored in closed silo with high level alarm. The closed silo shall be fitted with high level audible alarm which is interlocked with the material filling line such that, in the event of the silo approaching an overfilling condition, the alarm is triggered and the filling operation stops within one minute.
21Exposed earth compacted Exposed earth treated with hydroseeding Treat by compaction, hydroseeding, vegetation planting, etc. within 6 months after the last construction activity.To avoid dust emission caused by wind whipping, exposed earth in construction site shall be properly treated by compaction, hydroseeding, vegetation planting or sealing with bitumen, shotcrete or other suitable surface stabilizer within 6 months after the last construction activity.
22Dusty Materials Collected by Fabric Filters or Other Equipment Dispose of in enclosed containers.Do not store in open area.The loading, unloading, transfer and handling of cement and PFA shall be carried out in a totally enclosed system, and any vent or exhaust shall be fitted with an effective fabric filter. Cement, PFA and similar dusty materials collected by fabric filters shall be disposed of in totally enclosed containers.
23Control Requirements for Individual Activities Part IV of ScheduleControl Requirements for Individual ActivitiesRequirements in Part IV of schedule are applicable to all types of construction work when such activity is engaged.
24Stockpiling of Dusty Materials Cover entirely by impervious sheeting;Place in an area sheltered on the top and the 3 sides; orMaintain entire surface wet.This requirement is applicable to all dusty materials except for cement and PFA.
25Loading, Unloading or Transfer of Dusty Materials Wet dusty materials with water spraying prior to operation.Except for cement and PFA, all dusty materials shall be sprayed with water immediately prior to any loading, unloading or transfer operation so as to maintain the dusty materials wet to prevent dust emission.
26Transfer of Dusty Materials with a Belt Conveyor System Enclose the belt conveyor from the top and the 2 sides.Enclose the transfer point between conveyors.Install belt scraper and bottom plates.Maintain vertical distance between belt conveyor outlet and material landing point at <1 m.Enclose the unloading area.Transfer point enclosedThis requirement is also applicable to all dusty materials except for cement and PFA. Belt scrapper shall be installed at the head pulley of every belt conveyor to dislodge fine particles that may adhere to the belt surface. Belt scraper shall be equipped with bottom plates to prevent falling of materials from the return belt.
27Wash vehicle before leaving site Load on truck inadequately Use of VehiclesWash every vehicle before leaving the site to remove dusty materials from body and wheels.Cover any load of dusty materials.Wash vehicle before leaving siteBefore leaving a construction site, every vehicle shall be washed to remove any dusty materials from its body and wheels. Where a vehicle leaving a construction site is carrying a load of dusty materials, the load shall be covered entirely by clean impervious sheeting to ensure no leakage of dusty materials from the vehicle.Load on truck inadequatelycoveredLoad on truckcovered
28Drilling, Cutting & Polishing, etc Spray surface continuously with water.Equip with effective dust extraction and filtering device.Wet the breaking area to control emissionWater shall be continuously sprayed on the work surface where any power-driven drilling, cutting, polishing or other mechanical breaking operation that causes dust emission is carried out, unless the operation is accompanied by a dust extraction and filtering device.Drilling without wateringDust collection system to control dust emission
29Enclosed debris chute and collection area Debris HandlingCover or store debris in area sheltered on the top and the 3 sides.Enclose the debris chute.Wet debris before dumping into chute.Enclosed debris chute and collection areaDebris chute shall be enclosed by impervious sheeting or similar materials. Debris collection area shall be sheltered on the top and the 3 sides. Debris shall be wetted before dumping into debris chute.
30Excavation or Earth Moving Spray the working area with water or chemicals before, during and immediately after the operation to maintain entire surface wet.Likewise, the specified requirement is to prevent dust emission due to earth disturbance.
31Concrete production in open area is NOT allowed Carry out de-bagging, batching and mixing of cement and PFA in area sheltered on the top and the 3 sides.This requirement applies to production of concrete or other substances using bagged cement or dry pulverized fuel ash (PFA). For concrete production using bulk cement or PFA, all weighing, mixing and batching operations shall be carried out in a totally enclosed system.Concrete production in open area is NOT allowed
32Dusty material should be covered or removed Site ClearanceWet the working area before, during and immediately after the operation.Cover all demolished items or place in area sheltered on the top and the 3 sides within a day of demolition.Dusty material should be covered or removedThe working area for the uprooting of trees, shrubs or for the removal of boulders, temporary or permanent structures shall be sprayed with water immediately before, during and after the operation so as to maintain the surface wet.
33Blasting Wet area within 30 m before blasting. No blasting during the strong wind signal or tropical cyclone warning No.3 or above is hoisted unless permitted by Commissioner of Mines.Blasting will generate dust cloud causing serious impact to the surrounding environment. These measures aim to minimize the impact.
34Control Requirements for Notifiable Works Part I of ScheduleControl Requirements for Notifiable WorksPart I of the schedule lists out the specific control requirements for carrying out the particular type of notifiable work. In addition, relevant control requirements set out in Parts III and IV of the schedule shall also be employed.
35ReclamationTreat or seal any stockpile of dusty materials (>1.2 m high & <50 m from site boundary) with bitumen or other suitable surface stabilizer.The purpose of this requirement is to treat and seal large stockpile with suitable surface stabilizer to avoid dust emission caused by wind whipping. For those stockpiles that are deviated from the conditions specified in this requirement, we shall refer to the requirement set out in Part IV of the schedule i.e. S.18 - Stockpiling of dusty materials.
36Demolition of a Building Wet the working area prior to, during and immediately after demolition.Enclose the building with impervious dust screens to a height of at least 1 m higher.Wet remaining dusty materials after removal and clear the road surface.Wet the working areaEnclose the building under demolitionThe requirements are applicable to the commonly used “top-down” demolition method.
37Construction of the Superstructure of Building Provide effective dust screen where a scaffolding is erected.Enclose the skip hoist.Where scaffolding is erected around the perimeter of a building under construction, effective dust screen shall be provided to enclose the scaffolding from the ground floor of the building, or if a canopy is provided at the first floor level, from the first floor level, up to the highest level of the scaffolding.For skip hoist, either 3 sides of the skip hoist facing outwards are enclosed or the lifting car for delivering materials is totally enclosed. Impervious sheeting should be used for enclosure, as stated in the regulation.Other than these two requirements, relevant control requirements set out in Parts III and IV, e.g. hoarding, vehicle washing facilities, debris handling, use of vehicles, etc shall be employed.
38Control Requirements for Regulatory Works Part II of ScheduleControl Requirements for Regulatory WorksPart II of the schedule lists out the specific control requirements for carrying out particular type of regulatory work. In addition, relevant control requirements set out in Parts III and IV of the schedule shall also be employed.
39Renovation on Outer Surface of External Wall or Roof Provide dust screen where there is scaffolding.Enclose the skip hoist.Wet remaining dusty materials after removal and clear the road surface.Where scaffolding is erected around the perimeter of a building under construction, effective dust screen shall be provided to enclose the scaffolding from the ground floor of the building, or if a canopy is provided at the first floor level, from the first floor level , up to the highest level of the scaffolding.For skip hoist, either 3 sides of the skip hoist facing outwards are enclosed or the lifting car for delivering materials is totally enclosed.Where any mechanical drilling, cutting or polishing work is carried out on external wall, suitable enclosure and continuous water spray or effective dust extraction and filtering device shall be provided to abate the dust emission.Screen effectively reduce dust nuisance
40Road Opening Resurfacing Work Cover dusty material.Spray, remove / backfill / reinstate dusty materials within 24 hours.Dusty materials shall not be extended beyond pedestrian barriers, fencing or traffic cones.Any remaining dusty materials after removal shall be wetted and cleared from road surface.Remaining dusty materials should be wetted and clearedOther than those requirements, continuous water spray shall be applied to the work surface where road breaking operation is carried out.
41Exemption Road construction work exempt from hoarding requirement. Road opening or resurfacing workexempt from vehicle washing facilities and hoarding requirements.Slope stabilizationexempt from vehicle washing facilities requirement, andexempt from hoarding requirement if the site boundary adjoins road for vehicular traffic.Some construction works are exempted from certain dust control measures because of the physical constraint in the construction site in adopting the required control measures. Hoarding is not required in road construction work, which usually occupies a long strip of land. Road opening work is usually short-termed and occupies a relatively small site area that cannot accommodate vehicle washing facility and hoarding. For similar reasons, slope stabilization work is exempted from vehicle washing facilities and hoarding, if the site boundary adjoins any road for vehicular traffic with or without a footway.
42Exemption for Emergency Work Where there is a threat to human life or building safety.Immediate repair of utility services, road collapse or road blockage due to accidents.Construction work carried out under emergency situations where human life or building safety is immediately threatened or immediate repair as a result of failure of public utilities, road collapse due to natural accident is exempted from the dust control requirements.
43PenaltiesAny person, who fails to give notification to EPD before commencing any notifiable work commits an offence. Any person, who carries out construction work, fails to adopt dust control measures set out in the schedule of the regulation commits an offence. The penalties quoted are the maximum fines.
44Tips to Reduce Dust Emission Include the plan and budget of implementation of dust control measures in the tender.Arrange delivery of dust suppression materials and equipment to site at an early stage.Ensure good communication between frontline workers and management staff.Promote staff awareness on dust control measures.Supervise frontline workers.The success in reducing dust emission from construction activities relies on the participations of all construction trade practitioners including senior management, supervisory staff and frontline workers.2