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Constitution of the United States of America

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1 Constitution of the United States of America
Articles I-III

2 Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America

3 Article I Section 1 Congress writes legislation 2 chambers—
House of Representative Senate

4 Article I Section 2 House: directly elected by the people
Members serve 2-year terms Members of the House must: Be 25 years old A citizen of the United States for at least 7 years Live in the state that elects them

5 Article I House seats assigned by census every 10 years,
Initially used a formula that counted African American slaves as 3/5 of a person Excluded Native Americans House has power to impeach senior government officials

6 Article I Section 3 Each state has 2 senators
Serve six-year terms One-third of the Senate faces election at a time Senators must be 30 years old A citizen of the United States for a least 9 years Live in the state that elects them The Vice-President presides over the Senate can only vote in case of a tie The Senate tries impeachment cases against federal officials after the House has voted to impeach. A conviction requires the support of 2/3 of the Senate members Anyone convicted of impeachable offenses can be removed from office

7 Article I Section 4 Congress shall assemble at least once a year
Elections of Senators and Representatives is set by the state

8 Article I Section 5 The House and the Senate each monitor the elections of their own members. Can’t take action unless majority of members are present House and Senate discipline their own members Congress must maintain public record of its work

9 Article I Section 6 Congress makes a law that sets the salary of members Members of the House and Senate cannot hold other government offices Includes positions in Cabinet

10 Article I Section 7 Bills to impose taxes originate in the House
After a bill passes both the House and the Senate: president has ten days to sign it into law or veto it. If the president does nothing, the bill becomes law automatically, unless Congress is not in session Congress can pass a law over a president’s veto through a 2/3 vote of each chamber

11 Article I Section 8 Congress has the broad authority, including the power to: Impose taxes Maintain a military Declare war, Manage a postal system Create a judicial system Borrow money Congress has sweeping power to enact laws to provide for the general welfare of the country, and to pass any law that it deems necessary to carry out other duties

12 Article I Section 9 Citizens cannot be arrested and jailed without cause Congress cannot pass a law that declares a person guilty of a crime or that makes an action in the past illegal Cannot create laws that favor the ports of some states over others Can only spend money if Congress has approved it, Government must maintain public records of all spending The United States cannot name a king or other royalty US officials cannot accept payments from other countries without approval

13 Article I Section 10 Congress has powers over the states in may areas
The states are barred from taking on most congressional duties, including: The issuing of money Entering into alliances with other countries Imposing duties on imports form other countries

14 Article II Executive Branch

15 Article II Section 1 The president ensures that the nation’s laws are carried out and enforced. The president serves a four-year term Formally elected by the Electoral College Electors chosen through direct elections Congress formally counts the presidential election ballots from the electoral college. If no presidential candidate receives a majority, the House chooses the president.

16 Article II Section 1 The president must be at least 35 years old
A United States citizen born here A resident of the country for 14 years If the president dies, resigns, or becomes unable to carry out the responsibilities, the vice president steps in. If there is no president or vice president, the Speaker of the House, the president pro tem of the Senate, and the sequence of cabinet officials

17 Article II Section 1 Congress sets the president’s pay rate, and the rate cannot be changed once the president takes office. The president cannot accept other payments from the government On inauguration day: President takes an oath of office, administered by the chief justice of the U.S.

18 Article II Section 2 The president has wide authority in the executive branch. Commander in chief of the military Supervisory responsibility for executive branch departments Power to grant pardons The Senate acts as a check on some presidential powers. The president makes treaties with other countries, but they take effect only if 2/3 of the Senate approves. The president’s nominations of ambassadors, federal judges, cabinet members, and other top government officials requires the approval of a majority of the Senate

19 Article II Section 3 The president must periodically issue a State of the Union statement: Speech delivered in person President explains the condition of the country and offers legislative suggestions. The president can also call a joint session of Congress, or call a session of either of the houses separately.

20 Article III Judicial Branch

21 Article III Section 1 The Supreme Court has some administrative control over the legal system, but Congress decides the number of courts that are necessary and many other important issues. Supreme Court justices and other federal judges hold their appointments for life unless they violate significant laws. Their salary cannot be reduced while they are serving on the Court

22 Article III Section 2 Supreme Court has original jurisdiction only in cases involving ambassadors, or if a state is involved. They conduct a trial to determine the facts of a case and issue a judgment. The Supreme Court hears only appeals in all other types of cases. Americans have a right to a jury trial in significant cases, and the trial must be held in the state where the crime is alleged to have occurred. Congress can enact laws to handle the rare cases that involve offenses occurring outside of the states

23 Article III Section 3 Congress can only define a few types of offenses as treason. A person accused of treason can only be convicted if there are two witnesses to the crime, or if the person confesses in court Congress can impose punishments and fines and can confiscate property form those convicted of treason. The heirs of the convicted person retain a right to inherit any estate, however

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