2 The Big IdeaThe U.S. Constitution balances the powers of the federal government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.Main IdeasThe framers of the Constitution devised the federal system.The legislative branch makes the nation's laws.The executive branch enforces the nation’s laws.The judicial branch determines whether or not laws are constitutional.
3 The Federal System.The Federal System divides powers between states and federal governmentCapitol Building State Capitol BuildingWashington D.C. Sacramento, California
4 Powers assigned to national government, called delegated powers, include coining money and regulating trade
5 Powers kept by states, called reserved powers, include creating local governments and holding elections
6 Concurrent powers, including taxing and enforcing laws, are shared by federal and state governments
7 The “Elastic Clause” allows Congress to stretch its delegated powers to deal with unexpected issues. The Congress shall have Power - To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
8 Separation of PowersThis separation balances the branches of government and keeps any one of them from growing too powerful.
9 Judicial BranchInterprets Constitution and other lawsReviews lower-court decisions
12 The legislative branch makes the nation’s laws. Article I of the Constitution divides legislative branch, or Congress, into House of Representatives and SenateHouse of Representatives has 435 members; number for each state determined by population; each member represents a particular district within her or his state
13 The Senate has two members for each state; both represent the state as a whole.
14 Leader of the House of Representatives Speaker of the House—elected by House members from the majority party
15 U.S. vice president also serves as president of the Senate
16 Legislative Requirements House of RepresentativesMembers must be 25 years oldLive in the state where electedHave been a U.S. citizen for seven yearsSenateMembers must be 30 years oldLive in the state representedHave been a U.S. citizen for nine years
17 The executive branch enforces the nation’s laws. Article II of the Constitution lists powers of executive branch, which enforces laws passed by CongressHead of the executive branch is the president
18 President and vice president elected every four years Vice president becomes president if the president dies, resigns, or is removed from office
19 House of Representatives can impeach, or vote to charge president with serious crimes; Senate tries impeachment cases; Congress can remove president from office if found guilty
20 Some Presidential Powers President can veto, or cancel, laws that Congress has passedCongress can override veto with a two-thirds majority voteVetoPresident can issue executive orders, commands that have the power of lawThese orders carry out laws affecting the Constitution, treaties, and statutes.Executive OrdersPardonsPresident may grant pardons, or freedom from punishmentGranted to persons convicted of federal crimes or facing criminal charges
21 Other Executive Duties The president commands the armed forces; while only Congress can declare war, the president can call on U.S. troops in emergencies.The executive branch conducts foreign relations and creates treaties.
22 Executive departments do most of the work of the executive branch; the president appoints department heads, called secretaries, who make up the cabinet.
23 The judicial branch determines whether or not laws are constitutional. Judicial branch—system of federal courts headed by U.S. Supreme CourtArticle III of the Constitution outlines courts’ dutiesFederal courts can strike down a state or federal law if the court finds law unconstitutionalFederal court judges are appointed by the president for life.The lower federal courts are divided into 94 districts.The Courts of Appeals review cases from the lower courts.
24 The Supreme Court Hears appeals of decisions by the Court of Appeals Cases usually involve important constitutional or public-interest issues.Has nine justices, led by a chief justiceRecent justices include Thurgood Marshall, first African American justice, appointed in 1967; Sandra Day O’Connor, first female justice, appointed in 1981
25 1. Name the system that divides powers between states and federal government. 2. What is the “clause” that allows Congress to stretch its delegated powers to deal with unexpected issues?3. Which branch of government interprets the laws?4. Which branch of government commands the armed forces?
26 Which branch of government writes laws? What is the term used to refer to the leader of the House of Representatives?Who serves as president of the Senate?The House of Representatives can __________ or charge the president with serious crimes.The president can _______ or cancel laws that Congress has passed.
27 10. This group of nine justices hears appeals of decisions by the Court of Appeals.