Presentation on theme: "Nutrition. Nutrition is the science behind how your body uses the components of food to grow, maintain, and repair itself. Nutrients are the chemical."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition is the science behind how your body uses the components of food to grow, maintain, and repair itself. Nutrients are the chemical elements and compounds that are essential to the growth and maintenance of life Your body needs more than 50 nutrients on a daily basis.
The 50 nutrients belong to one of six categories: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Fats 4. Water 5. Minerals 6. Vitamins Macronutrients Micronutrients
Macronutrients are the nutrients that we need in relatively large amounts everyday They are also known as the “energy nutrients” because they provide our body with energy or “calories”
Carbohydrates (aka Carbs) are the preferred source of food energy for your body Over 50% of your total daily caloric intake should come from carb-rich foods The body converts carbs into a sugar called glucose.
There are 2 types of carbohydrates 1. Simple Carbohydrates: Are also called sugars and occur naturally in fruit, milk, yogurt, and fruit juice. They are also in less nutritious foods such as soft drinks and candy Lastly, they provide the body with a quick boost of energy because they are easily digested and absorbed into the bloodstream 2. Complex Carbohydrates: Come from starches found in grains (bread, pasta). They contain a long chain of glucose molecules which means that your body takes longer to break them down They provide a slow steady energy source
Fiber: Is a type of complex carb that the body cannot digest It is not a source of calories Fiber can take some cancer-causing chemicals out of the body Helps fight high cholesterol and maintain body weight Foods rich in fiber whole grains, vegetables, fruit
Proteins can be found in all the cells in our bodies (muscles, tendons, hair, skin, etc) Proteins are the “building blocks” of the body and help to repair muscles, bone, skin and blood cells Helps produces energy for the body but not as significant as carbohydrates
Proteins are made up of smaller sub units called amino acids. There are 20 amino acids; the body can produce 11, the other 9 must be obtained through food High-quality protein source: foods that contain all 9 amino acids. Ex: eggs, meat, fish, poultry Low-quality protein source: foods that are lacking in one or more amino acids. Ex: cereals, grain products, nuts
Fats are a concentrated source of energy. They are especially useful during prolonged physical activity. They aid in the absorption of fat- soluble vitamins that the body requires.
Choosing too many high-fat foods can increase a person’s risk of heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and some cancers. Instead of choosing high fat, low nutritious foods (hot dogs, french fries), choose high fat foods that also provide other nutrients (granola bars, peanut butter, cheese)
Between 50 and 60 percent of our total body weight is water Water bathes cells, aids in fluid and electrolyte balance, and transports cells throughout the body
In order to stay hydrated you need to drink between 6 and 8 glasses of water per day. The best way to measure hydration levels is to monitor the color of your urine Pale yellow, the body is hydrated Darker yellow, the body needs fluids
Micronutrients are essential nutrients that are only needed by our body in small amounts Unlike macronutrients, micronutrients do not provide the body with calories Micronutrients help the body utilize the energy provided by carbs, proteins, and fats
Vitamins are chemicals that body needs to build and maintain its cells They also release energy from macronutrients
Two types of vitamins: 1. Water-soluble: the body does not store water soluble vitamins, so we need to eat foods that contain these vitamins on a daily basis. Example: vitamin C, found in fruits, helps to build collagen (found in tendons, bones) 2. Fat-soluble: are absorbed in the small intestine and stored in the liver. Need smaller amounts Example: vitamin D, helps maintain strong bones because it aids in the absorption of calcium
Minerals help make bones, proteins and blood as well as help with energy absorption from macronutrients They are inorganic substances needed by the body for good health
Electrolytes: are minerals that carry an electrical charge when dissolved in the body. They balance fluid levels in the body, maintain blood pressure, conduct nerve impulses 3 types: sodium, chloride, potassium Other examples of Minerals: Calcium Copper Iron Magnesium Zinc
Calorie is a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy we obtain from a particular food Macronutrients (carbs, protein, fats) are our body’s sources of energy The 3 energy nutrients supply calories in different amounts: 1 gram of carbohydrate= 4 calories 1 gram of protein= 4 calories 1 gram of fat= 9 calories We should get 45-65% of our calories from carbs, 10-35% from protein, and 20-35% from fats
The key to maintaining a healthy body weight is to balance energy intake with energy expenditure Calories gained through food is energy intake, while the amount of calories burned throughout a day is energy expenditure When energy intake is equal to energy expenditure, our body weight does not change When energy intake is less than energy expenditure, we lose weight When energy intake is more than energy expenditure, we gain weight Physical activity increases energy expenditure
Gender, body, size, genetics, age, and physical activity level all influence a persons “total daily caloric need” Example: a teenage athlete needs more calories in a day than an inactive elderly woman The “Harris Benedict Formula” is a way to help estimate the amount of energy your body uses when it is at rest