Presentation on theme: "The Spanish American War U.S. History 2 AP Mr. Melvin Unit 1, Lesson 2."— Presentation transcript:
The Spanish American War U.S. History 2 AP Mr. Melvin Unit 1, Lesson 2
Causes of the War Not caused by US expansionists and imperialists Merely exploited pre-existing conditions in Cuba Spanish atrocities
Spanish Atrocities Spanish misgovernment led to revolt in 1868-1878 February 1895 –New Civil War –Partially caused by US tariff (1894) Cubans had to pay to trade raw sugar in US –Crushed economy –Brought to light bigger Spanish misgovernment
1895 Cuban Revolt Imperial Spanish vs. Cuban “insurrectos” Savage methods used from both: –Cubans – destroyed property, sugar mills, and cane fields –Spanish – General Valerio Weyler “The Butcher” Reconcentration policy Barbed wire camps (2 years = 200,000 dead) Who is the enemy???
“The Butcher” Fighting a guerilla rebellion Did he have a choice?? How could he restore order??
The Yellow Press Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers. Further aroused US Jingoism “This is a neighbor fighting for their independence!” The Spaniards are evil!
Circulation War William Randolph Hearst (NY Journal) Joseph Pulitzer (NY World)
Propaganda Pictures Frederic Remington Employed by Hearst “You furnish me the pictures and I will furnish the war.” Pictures of US women being strip searched
Yellow Journalism Even after 3 years of yellow journalism, the US did not move to war Other causes
Other Causes Protestants/Moralists Help out Cubans “Moralistic Aggression” No desire to annex Cuba
Other Causes Outward Imperialists – Military Glory and Aggression
U.S. Intervention President Cleveland resisted mounting pressures –Not giving Cuba belligerent rights –Not allowing gun running to Cuba –Changed in 1896: Speech rationalizing war
U.S Intervention President McKinley tried to calm jingoist spirits (Keep Republican Party united) New Spanish government: Attempted to change policies –Removed Weyler –Gave Cubans some self-government (No independence) –Spaniards in Cuba – No Cuban rule! –Cubans – We want independence!
President William McKinley 25 th President of the United States Republican Served 1896-1901 Last Civil War veteran to be president Hated War
U.S. Intervention Other incidents/accidents pushed US closer to war DeLome Letter (February 9, 1898) Stolen from Spanish minister to US, partially edited by Hearst, and published Insults McKinley "...McKinley is weak and catering to the rabble and, besides, a low politician who desires to leave a door open to himself and to stand well with the jingos of his party."
Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine Battleship sent to guard US civilians in Havana Blew up on February 15, 1898 (260 dead) Investigations: –US – external explosion –Spain – internal explosion
Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine U.S. Senate voted for $50 million in defense spending (before investigation complete) March 19,1898 – Senator Proctor’s Speech –Tells of atrocities he saw while visiting Cuba –Convinces neutrals in Congress
McKinley’s Proposal to Spain March 27, 1898 –Calls for end of reconcentration, armistice until Oct. 1, and peace talks with insurgents through the US –March 28 – sent telegram saying Cuban independence a necessary outcome for successful negotiations –McKinley didn’t want war, but wanted to keep Republicans unified
Spain’s conundrum If it says no – risk war with US Probably lose all overseas empires If it says yes – risk revolution at home Government will be seen as weak Asks for European intervention –European powers only ask McKinley not to go to war –Will not militarily back Spain
Spanish Response Message sent on March 31, 1898 Stop reconcentration and grant armistice April 9 th – Spain stops hostilities on its own April 10 th – Tells U.S. it can’t give Cuban independence –US Minister in Spain believes peace can be achieved during armistice
How to Proceed? April 11 – McKinley gives speech to Congress (little mention of Spain’s concessions) April 19 – Congress passes resolution to recognize Cuban independence Also passes Teller Amendment US will not annex Cuba (free hand on other Spanish possessions) April 24 – Spain declares war on US April 25 – US declares war on Spain
Spanish-American War Over in 10 weeks John Hay called it “The Splendid Little War” Confirmed a romantic view towards war Most popular of US wars –Over before war weariness set in
Spanish-American War US developed Naval Plan in 1896 (in case war EVER broke out) Commodore George Dewey’s Fleet sent to Hong Kong Capture Manila Bay (Philippines) on April 30, 1898 Destroyed Spanish Naval power in Pacific
Spanish American War Army much less prepared Expeditionary Force – 26,000 troops No plans, strategy, etc. Embarked from Tampa, Florida General William Shafter in charge Transportation broke down, “yellow plague” broke out Scapegoat – Secretary of War Russell Alger
Spanish American War Spanish fleet blockaded in Santiago Harbor Easy to land U.S. Army (June 20, 1898) 18,000 US vs. 200,000 Spanish Only 13,000 at landing site Bad Communication plus hostile population in revolt
The Rough Riders Most famous unit of war Commanded by Leonard Wood Teddy Roosevelt second-in-command
Spanish American War US objective was San Juan Hill (overlooking Santiago) July 2, 1898 – captured Kettle Hill July 3, 1898 – Spanish fleet attempts to leave Santiago Harbor and is sunk –400 dead
The End of the War July 16, 1898 – Spanish surrender in Cuba July 21, 1898 – General Nelson A. Miles lands in Puerto Rico Captured by August 12 th, 1898 Dewey waits for US troops to arrive in Philippines Captures Manila by August 14 th, 1898 Assisted by Emilio Aguinaldo and Filipino insurgents
The End of the War Armistice arranged between countries on August 12, 1898 Spain sued for peace on July 18, 1898 What took so long????? Spain agreed to give up control of Cuba Conference set for October 1, 1898 in Paris would work out peace and future of other Spanish imperial possessions