Presentation on theme: "Diplomacy in Latin America and the Spanish-American War."— Presentation transcript:
Diplomacy in Latin America and the Spanish-American War
The Monroe Doctrine, Europe and the Western Hemisphere * American/French Revolutions sparked revolution in C. and S. America against Imperial powers (Spain, Portugal, France) * * In 1823, President James Monroe issues a warning to EUROPE – the Monroe Doctrine * * The Monroe Doctrine stated: 1. W. Hemisphere was CLOSED to Europe for colonization 2. U.S. would OPPOSE European intervention in W. Hemisphere 3. U.S. would NOT involve itself politically in European affairs * Americans had always been interested in building a CANAL to ease transportation *
* The Monroe Doctrine was important because it set the tone for United States foreign policy for the next 100 years!
The $.99 version of the SPANISH-AMERICAN War! * In 1895, a revolt against Spanish imperial rule broke out in Cuba. Three years later, the United States came to the support of the Cuban people by declaring war against Spain. More than any other event, this war represented a turning point in U.S. foreign policy. The swift and decisive victory demonstrated the country’s military and economic power!
CUBA, Spain and Imperialism * Cuba was one of Spain’s OLDEST colonies in it’s empire (1500s) * * Starting in 1868, Cubans began to revolt against Spain for independence… * Ten Years War ends with many Cubans in exile, living in U.S. – JOSE MARTI * ** By the 1890s, the U.S. and Cuba were linked economically – SUGAR, mines, railroads ** * 1894, Marti launches new and “successful” rebellion – Republic of Cuba
Propaganda and U.S. Support for Cuba – “Yellow Journalism” * Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World and William Randolph Hearst of the New York Journal created sensationalist headlines to attract readers! * Stories were told of Spanish atrocities towards Cubans – Valeriano “The Butcher” Weyler * Civilized, educated and Protestant U.S. – “backwards” and Catholic Spanish Empire
When the famous painter Remington, working for the Journal in Cuba, asked for permission to return, Hearst replied with his famous saying, "Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war."
By the end of 1897, General Weyler had relocated more than 300,000 into "re-concentration camps"
Lead up to WAR! DUH-duh-duuuuh… * Spain removed Weyler from power and made concessions to Cuban rebels… * January 1898, ENRAGED Spanish loyalists – riots broke out in HAVANA – send in the USS MAINE * * February 1898, De Lome Letter (New York Journal) “shows once more what McKinley is: weak and catering to the rabble, and, besides, a low politician, who desires to leave a door open to me and to stand well with the jingoes of his party.”
February 15, 1898 “REMEMBER THE MAINE!” * On Feb. 15 th, at 9:40 p.m., the USS Maine exploded, killing 260 crew members! *
President McKinley and the “Declaration of War” * BOTH Democrats and Republicans wanted war with Spain… (JINGOISM) * By April 19 th, Congress proclaimed Cuba independent and demanded Spain’s withdrawal * Congress passed the Teller Amendment to ensure NO annexation of Cuba… * Ultimatum sent to Spain, Spain declares war a week later!
What were the MAIN CAUSES of the Spanish-American War 1. Cubans REBEL against Spain – Spanish OPPRESSION… 2. U.S. investment in Cuba – rebellion = unstable economy! 3. “Yellow Journalism” of Hearst and Pulitzer 4. Sinking of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor
The “splendid little war” was fought in both the Pacific and Caribbean April – August, 1898
* 1.) The Pacific theater of the war was fought in the Philippines and Guam*
"You may fire when you are ready, Gridley" * May 1, 1898 – U.S. Commodore George Dewey defeated a Spanish squadron of 8 ships, in Manila Bay in SIX HOURS * * U.S. was not prepared for such a quick victory – enter Emilio Aguinaldo! (declared ind., June) ** By August, the U.S. had taken control of Manila, Filipinos had taken control of all other islands ** * Would lead to the Philippine- American War… UH-OH! * Guam was captured just as easily!
* 2.) The Caribbean theater of the war was fought in Cuba and Puerto Rico *
* The Americans planned to capture the city of Santiago to destroy the Spanish Army and Navy *
* From June 22-24, U.S. Marines landed east of Santiago and established an American base of operations *
* On July 1 st, American troops, among them Roosevelt and his “Rough Riders”, attacked entrenched Spaniards at the Battle of El Caney and Battle of San Juan Hill outside of Santiago * Teddy and the "Rough Riders"
The First United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment – “Rough Riders”
1.) By the end of July, Spain had been defeated in CUBA and PUERTO RICO… 2.) The Spanish government initiated a message to President McKinley to suspend the hostilities and to start the negotiations to end the war! The End of the Spanish-American War: 3.) August – American invasion forces begin to evacuate Cuba (all except the Black 9 th Infantry Regiment) – “immunes” 4.) By December 1898 – the Treaty of Paris ended the war and settled the terms for peace!
The Treaty of Paris Spain: 1.Gave up all rights to Cuba 2.Surrendered Puerto Rico * 3.Surrendered Guam 4.Surrendered the Philippines to the U.S. for a payment of $20 million * (HUGE debate) * The Platt Amendment of 1901 replaced the Teller Amendment! * Cuba would sell U.S. Guantánamo Bay, U.S. would have exclusive territory rights in Cuba, Cuba would keep it’s debts low and U.S. could intervene for protection*
Aftermath of the Spanish-American War: * Ended the Spanish Empire (but helped Spain in the long-run) ** The U.S. gained Puerto Rico (1900 – Foraker Act), Guam and the Philippines as territories ** ** Cuba became a protectorate of the United States (Platt Amendment) ** * Helped race relations in the United States (not really) * Thrust TEDDY into the national spotlight!