ACT scores, use on rise in Cobb By Alexis Stevens The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Thursday, February 12, 2009 Despite a drop in Cobb students’ average SAT scores, marks on a different college entrance exam have risen three straight years. “Many of the stronger, college-bound students are opting to take the ACT,” said Superintendent Fred Sanderson, who delivered his State of the System address Wednesday. More Cobb County students now opt to take the ACT. Thirty-nine percent of students took the test in 2008, up from 27 percent in 2006. In 2008, Cobb students scored an average of 1523 on the SAT, down from 1538 in 2006. National and state averages have dipped, too. Georgians averaged 1453 in 2008, compared with a national average of 1495. The average ACT score for Cobb students in 2008 was 22, up a half-point from 2006. http://www.ajc.com/services/content/printedition/2009/0 2/12/cobbboe0212.html
From The Detroit News (08/14/2004) Black Educational Achievement How educational enrollment and achievement of black students have changed since the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision. 19542002 Enrollment of children ages 5 and 6 in school Enrollment of students ages 18 and 19 in school 19542002
From The Detroit News (08/14/2004) Black Educational Achievement How educational enrollment and achievement of black students have changed since the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision. 19542002 High School Graduates College Graduates 19542002
Minute Blitz: How have you seen data used in your district? In local and regional media?
Charting feedback Nice work I never get to lead a project I’m really proud of you 4/6 classes have met the standards What are some of the areas that you could work on that would increase your score? Lovely Thank you You have really improved 10% retention rate I like the way you think In what ways could you bring this paper to a “4”? 20% of the criteria I appreciate your patience Awesome! Your scores have improved 35 minutes in reading instruction In what areas do you need the least amount of work? That’s very insightful 6% rise in science scores I’m seeing real growth in your thinking Poorly written You seemed to have trouble here
Feedback Five categories –Judgment –Personal observation –Inference –Data –Mediative questions Teachers use data and reflective questioning to enable students to make their own judgments, personal observations and inferences. Table Talk Teacher Focus Student Focus
Most Common Grading Scales 4 point 12 point 100 point
Melcher vs. Dike-New Hartford Community School District Findings No basis for raising the grade from A- to A No extra credit given for raising the grade “At all times Casey was a master of his destiny.”
Melcher vs. Dike- New Hartford Community School District “Inasmuch as no one is more capable than the classroom teacher of making these types of determination (evaluating student skills, abilities, and knowledge), there is no basis for the local board … to overturn the judgment of (the teacher).” Local school boards and administrators have authority over grading practices in cases “involving clerical or mechanical (e.g., mathematical) mistakes, fraud, incompetence, or bad faith.” In this case, there are no such allegations.
Barno v. Crestwood Board of Education Findings Court of Appeals ruled that district grading policy was both unreasonable and contrary to state law A diploma was issued to Ms. Barno (after graduation ceremony)
Barno v. Crestwood Board of Education “…the school’s grading policy made attendance a prerequisite for academic credit, which meant that attendance became part of the curriculum. A state statute listed courses that must be included in the curriculum, and they all shared a common characteristic: They were subjects to be studied. Under the statute, boards of education can only add subjects of study to the curriculum. Attendance was not a subject of study. There were no textbooks related to attendance, no lectures, and student could not be tested…”
Neilson, Nelson & Burns v Audubon Community School District Findings Decision regarding grades reversed and credit for the marking period was ordered to be awarded ASAP No board policy basis for withholding grades Denying credit as means of non-academic discipline is ‘invalid.’ No basis for returning the fees for the band trip
Neilson, Nelson & Burns v Audubon Community School District “…The withholding of academic credit as punishment for non- academic misconduct is hardly ever allowed…”
Katzman v Cumberland Valley Findings Grade reduction was reversed Misrepresenting scholastic achievement is both improper and illegal Grade reduction policy without an optional make up program is also illegal
Katzman v Cumberland Valley “ The policy adopted by the school board when it determined to discipline a student for an infraction unrelated to education by reducing her grades… amounted to a clear misrepresentation of student's scholastic achievement for college entrance and other purposes and, as such, represented an illegal application of school board's discretion. “
Schmidt v Waterloo Community School District Findings Reversed expulsion immediately, but too late to restore credit for first semester Attendance policy unreasonable on legal and educational grounds School ignored legislative preference of working with parents and serving the at-risk student
Schmidt v Waterloo Community School District “When a prima facie case of unreasonableness is made out, the burden shifts to the Board to justify its policy. In this case, the District’s reasoning, while laudable in purpose and intent, failed to overcome the unreasonableness of the policy. Therefore, the policy must fail.”
Tennessee Given “Cream Puff Award” in 2006 for having nation’s worst standards and not doing anything about it (Ed. Next Magazine) Attention given to large numbers of students passing state test and failing national tests Fall 2009: New standards, new texts, new tests, new curriculum –Teacher training –Rigorous expectations
Virginia School Districts DistrictABCDF Colonial Heights 100-9493-8786-8079-7372 and below Richmond100-9291-8382-7473-6564 and below Petersburg100-9493-8887-7877-7059 and below* Amelia100-9392-8584-7776-7069 and below
What’s happening in Pittsburgh, PA City Schools? 90-100A 80-89B 70-79C 60-69D 50-59E So Where’s the Controversy? “No Zeroes” policy! Work may not be scored below 50%
Pittsburgh Conflict Critics say –coddling of bad students, –cause high-performing students to goof off from time to time, safe in the knowledge that they wouldn't have to bounce back from anything lower than a 50 percent. –"To me, it's morally wrong!"
What’s happening in Dallas? Re-testing, Pre-K – 12 Make-Up Work Related to an Absence, Defined Pre-K - 12 Late Work Not Related to an Absence, Defined Pre-K – 12 Grading practices must focus on student growth and mastery of the learning standards
What’s happening in Dallas? All students shall earn a grade point average (GPA) based on a 100-point system…Class rank points are adjusted for course difficulty. The equivalent scale for numerical grades on a 4.0 grade point system is as follows: A90-1004.0 B80-893.0 C70-792.0 F< 700.0
Dallas ISD Defines Homework! Homework is assignment of work related to the essential knowledge and skills and used as independent practice activities. These assignments are expected to be completed outside the regular classroom setting. Homework should always be reviewed with students with feedback provided by the teacher. No mention of ‘grading’ or ‘giving credit.’
Communicating Results Traditional grading practice in a standards-based environment Arbitrary decisions that morph into institutionalized behavior Return to the PURPOSE standard. Then, ask yourself, what is the meaning of grades? What do they communicate to students? To parents? Consistent practice to attain equity.
Standard #5: Student- Involved Assessment Goal: Self-Directed Learner
Self-directed learners can 1.Self-manage 2.Self-monitor 3.Self-modify
Quality Assessment Standards (AKA The Keys to Success) 1.Clear and appropriate purpose 2.Specific and appropriate learning targets 3.Solid assessment design 4.Well-managed and effectively communicated results 5.Student-involved assessments
One Final Thought We Are the Ones We’ve Been Waiting For
See You Next Year! Julie McDaniel 248-209-2346 Julie.McDaniel@oakland.k12.mi.us