4 Surrounding the earth is a layer of gases called the atmosphere. It contains the oxygen we breath and protects us from radiation
5 Lithosphere This is the solid rock portion of the earth. Includes the crust and the uppermost mantle.
6 HydrosphereThis is the water elements of the earth.
7 Bodies of Water and Landforms Ocean covers 71% of the earth’s surface.Salty water in the ocean circulates through 3 basic motions- currents, waves, and tides.Lakes hold 95% of the earth’s fresh water.
9 Ground water Water held in the pores of rock is called ground water. Water table is the level of where the rock has been saturated by the water.
10 Landforms Naturally formed features on the surface of the earth. Earth’s surface from the edge of a continent to the deep part of the ocean is called continental shelf.
11 Landforms continued…The major geographic feature that separates one type of landform from another is relief.Relief- is the difference in elevation of a landform from its lowest point to its highest point.Topography- combination of the surface shape and composition of the landforms and their distribution in a region.
13 Plate MovementDivergent Boundary- Plates move apart spreading HorizontallyConvergent Boundary- Plates collide causing either one to dive under the otherTransform Boundary- plates slide past one another
14 WeatheringPhysical and Chemical processes that change the characteristics of rock on or near the earth’s surface.Sediment- Weathering process causes smaller and smaller pieces of rock called sediment.
15 Chemical WeatheringThis occurs when rock is changed into a new substance as a result of interaction between elements in the air or water and minerals in the rock.
16 Mechanical Weathering Process that breaks rock down into smaller pieces.
17 ErosionOccurs when weathered material is moved by wind, water, ice, or gravity.
18 SoilSoil is the loose mixture of weathered rock.
19 Soil FactorsParent Material- chemical composition of the original rock, or parent rock, before it decomposes affects its fertility.Relief- Steeper slopes, eroded easily, do not produce good soil.Organisms- plants, small animals, and bacteria that decompose material.Climate- Difference in climates produces different soils.Time- Amount of time to produce soil varies.