Presentation on theme: "MUSCLES. The muscles in the body each fall into one of three groups: 1.VOLUNTARY or SKELETAL MUSCLES- these muscles are under the control of our."— Presentation transcript:
The muscles in the body each fall into one of three groups: 1.VOLUNTARY or SKELETAL MUSCLES- these muscles are under the control of our will. All these muscles are attached to the skeleton. These muscles make up about 40% of our body weight.
These muscles are usually long and thin and because they cannot PUSH they are usually paired up e.g. BICEP and TRICEP muscles. One muscle bends the joint (FLEXION) and the other straightens it (EXTENSION). These pairs of muscles are called ANTAGONISTS.
BICEP MUSCLE- ANTAGONIST
2. INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES- These muscles, as the name suggests, are not under our control. They can be found in the organs of the body, such as the Digestive and Circulatory systems, and they contract and relax automatically. 3. CARDIAC MUSCLE- is found in the wall of the heart.
We cannot control it when it contracts and relaxes, so the Cardiac Muscle is also Involuntary.
WHAT ARE THE NAMES OF THE MUSCLES WE NEED TO LEARN ? 1.DELTOID 2.PECTORALS 3.BICEPS 4.TRICEPS 5.ABDOMINALS 6.QUADRICEPS 7.TRAPEZIUS
CAN YOU GIVE EXAMPLES IN SPORT THAT USE THESE MUSCLES ?
Muscles are made up of many muscle fibres. The muscle fibres can be SLOW TWITCH FIBRES or FAST TWITCH FIBRES.
We all have both types in our muscles in different quantities, and what we have appears to be handed down from our parents in our genes. SLOW TWITCH FIBRES are deep red in colour and they have a good oxygen supply to the working muscle.
These muscles contract slowly but they can work for long periods of time. CAN YOU NAME A TYPE OF SPORT WHERE ITS COMPETITORS WOULD HAVE MORE SLOW TWITCH FIBRES IN THEIR MUSCLES ?
CAN YOU NAME A TYPE OF SPORT WHERE ITS COMPETITORS WOULD HAVE MORE FAST TWITCH FIBRES IN THEIR MUSCLES ? FAST TWITCH FIBRES are white and work much more quickly, but they also tire more quickly.
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY- TWITCH FIBRES VIDEO CLIP
THINK OF THE 100M FINAL IN THE SYDNEY OLYMPICS…………… CAN YOU SUGGEST ANYTHING ABOUT THE RACE?
ARE THERE ANY SPORTS WHERE THERE IS A NEED FOR FAST AND SLOW TWITCH FIBRES TO BE USED?
UNDERSTANDING MUSCLES A feature of muscle fibres is that they can contract, or pull against the skeleton. What they cannot do is push. Most muscles are long and thin, but when they contract they get SHORTER and THICKER. CHECK YOUR BICEP MUSCLE ! SUMMARY
MUSCLES are attached to bones by tendons.
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY- MUSCLE CONTRACTION
Although muscles are attached at both ends, one end is called the ORIGIN and is fixed to something rigid. The other end, called the INSERTION, is fixed to the bone that moves.
The ends of the bones that form a joint are covered with smooth material called CARTILAGE, which reduces friction between the bones Bones are joined to other bones by LIGAMENTS, which are elastic and help to support the joint.
Because muscles cannot push, to make joints work, they are arranged in pairs called ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS.. THE BEST EXAMPLE OF ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS OF MUSCLES ARE THE BICEPS and TRICEPS. At the elbow, in order to bend the arm, the BICEPS contract (shorten) while the TRICEPS relax (lengthen).
MUSCLE cells are never all resting at the same time. Some are always ready for action, day and night. This is called MUSCLE TONE
FLEXIBILITY The range of motion available in a joint. The elasticity in a muscle can be compared with an elastic band, which may be stretched by a force but will return to its normal length when the force is withdrawn. Muscles are stretched with exercise. There are 4 methods of performing these stretches.
MUSCLES AND FAT In order to find your SOMATOTYPE it was necessary to measure your body fat at certain points on the body. Skinfold measurements were taken at different points and a % FAT calculation was undertaken. Another useful way to measure your body fatness is by using the BODY MASS INDEX.
This is calculated by taking your weight in kilograms and then dividing it by your height in metres squared. The result can then be checked against tables to indicate whether you are HEALTHY, OVERWEIGHT or OBESE. All our body parts add up to make the overall weight of our body. Our weight without fat is known as our LEAN BODY MASS. This includes our muscles, bones and organs.