5The muscles in the body each fall into one of three groups: VOLUNTARY or SKELETAL MUSCLES- these muscles are under the control of our will. All these muscles are attached to the skeleton.These muscles make up about 40% of our body weight.
7These muscles are usually long and thin and because they cannot PUSH they are usually paired up e.g. BICEP and TRICEP muscles.One muscle bends the joint (FLEXION) and the other straightens it (EXTENSION).These pairs of muscles are called ANTAGONISTS.
102. INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES- These muscles, as the name suggests, are not under our control. They can be found in the organs of the body, such as the Digestive and Circulatory systems, and they contract and relax automatically.3. CARDIAC MUSCLE- is found in the wall of the heart.
11We cannot control it when it contracts and relaxes, so the Cardiac Muscle is also Involuntary.
12WHAT ARE THE NAMES OF THE MUSCLES WE NEED TO LEARN ? DELTOIDPECTORALSBICEPSTRICEPSABDOMINALSQUADRICEPSTRAPEZIUS
25Muscles are made up of many muscle fibres Muscles are made up of many muscle fibres. The muscle fibres can be SLOW TWITCH FIBRES or FAST TWITCH FIBRES.
26We all have both types in our muscles in different quantities, and what we have appears to be handed down from our parents in our genes.SLOW TWITCH FIBRES are deep red in colour and they have a good oxygen supply to the working muscle.
27These muscles contract slowly but they can work for long periods of time. CAN YOU NAME A TYPE OF SPORT WHERE ITS COMPETITORS WOULD HAVE MORE SLOW TWITCH FIBRES IN THEIR MUSCLES ?
40UNDERSTANDING MUSCLES SUMMARYA feature of muscle fibres is that they can contract, or pull against the skeleton.What they cannot do is push.Most muscles are long and thin, but when they contract they get SHORTER and THICKER.CHECK YOUR BICEP MUSCLE !
50Bones are joined to other bones by LIGAMENTS, which are elastic and help to support the joint. The ends of the bones that form a joint are covered with smooth material called CARTILAGE, which reduces friction between the bones
52Because muscles cannot push, to make joints work, they are arranged in pairs called ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS.THE BEST EXAMPLE OF ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS OF MUSCLES ARE THE BICEPS and TRICEPS.At the elbow, in order to bend the arm, the BICEPS contract (shorten) while the TRICEPS relax (lengthen)..
60FLEXIBILITYThe range of motion available in a joint.The elasticity in a muscle can be compared with an elastic band, which may be stretched by a force but will return to its normal length when the force is withdrawn.Muscles are stretched with exercise. There are 4 methods of performing these stretches.
61Static stretchesBallistic stretchesProprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)Range of Motion Stretching.
64MUSCLES AND FATIn order to find your SOMATOTYPE it was necessary to measure your body fat at certain points on the body. Skinfold measurements were taken at different points and a % FAT calculation was undertaken.Another useful way to measure your body fatness is by using the BODY MASS INDEX.
65This is calculated by taking your weight in kilograms and then dividing it by your height in metres squared. The result can then be checked against tables to indicate whether you are HEALTHY, OVERWEIGHT or OBESE.All our body parts add up to make the overall weight of our body.Our weight without fat is known as our LEAN BODY MASS. This includes our muscles, bones and organs.