Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter Five Pgs. 141 - 174 Mrs. Wheeler/Mr. Rath Can you say Yoga? © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter Five Pgs. 141 - 174 Mrs. Wheeler/Mr. Rath Can you say Yoga? © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Five Pgs. 141 - 174 Mrs. Wheeler/Mr. Rath Can you say Yoga? © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

2 Explain benefits of flexibility. Be able to apply these benefits to your future health and discuss the application in written form. Discuss factors that influence a person’s level of flexibility. State F.I.T.T. principle for flexibility and compare/contrast to F.I.T.T. principles for other components of fitness. Explain the types of stretching techniques and which is recommended for which reasons.

3 Flexibility The ability of a joint to move through its normal range of motion It is a highly adaptable fitness component and responds well when utilized as part of a fitness program Joint specific, meaning that you must work all major joints, not just a few 3 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

4 There are two types of flexibility Static Flexibility: ability to hold an extended position at one end in a joint’s range of motion Dependent on your ability to tolerate stretched muscles, joint structure, and tightness of connective tissues Most assessment tests are based on this type Dynamic Flexibility: ability to move a joint through its range of motion with little resistance Important for daily activities and sports 4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

5 The flexibility of a joint is affected by the following: Joint Structure (cannot be changed) Hinge joint Ball and socket Joint capsules Heredity plays a part in joint structure and flexibility Muscle Elasticity and Length (Connective Tissue) Collagen (White fibers that provide structure in connective tissue) Elastin (Yellow fibers that are elastic and flexible) Titin (Structural protein with elastic properties) Elastic elongation (Temporary lengthening) Plastic elongation (Long-term lengthening) Without regular stretching the process is reversed; Tissues shorten, resulting in decreased flexibility. The Nervous System Proprioceptors (nerve that sends information about the muscular skelatal system to the nervous system. VIDEO CLIP: “Proprioception in Gangnam Style”“Proprioception in Gangnam Style” Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) 5 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

6 6

7 Joint health Prevention of low-back pain and injuries Relief of aches and pains Relief of muscle cramps Improved body position and strength for sports (and life) Maintenance of good posture and balance Relaxation Improving impaired mobility 7 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

8 Safe exercises executed with most effective techniques Goal should be to attain normal flexibility in the major joints You achieve balanced flexibility by performing stretching exercises regularly and by using a variety of stretches and stretching techniques 8 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

9 Flexibility is joint specific, so there are no tests for general flexibility Most commonly used test is the sit-and-reach test Measurement of Joint Motion: Goniometry, Greek words for gonia (angle) and metron (measure) refers to the measurement of angles, in particular the measurement of angles created at human joints. 9 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

10 Frequency: 2-3 days per week (minimum) Intensity: Stretch to the point of mild discomfort, not pain Time: Hold stretches for 15-30 seconds, and perform 2-4 times Type: Stretching exercise that focuses on major joints 10 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Applying the FITT Principle to Develop Flexibility ACSM recommendations

11 Static Stretching Ballistic Stretching Dynamic (Functional) Stretching Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Passive vs. Active Stretching 11 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

12 Widely recommended Stretch slowly until tension Active / passive assistance Hold stretch for 15-30 sec. Increase stretch a bit more (developmental stretch)

13 Dynamic movement Uses momentum May be important for athletes Specificity of movement

14 Ballistic stretches force the limb into an extended range of motion when the muscle has not relaxed enough to enter it. It involves fast "bouncing" movements where a double bounce is performed at the end range of movement. Ballistic stretching should only be used by athletes who know their own limitations and with supervision by their trainer. Ballistic stretching has been found to be hazardous towards the body. It can injure vital muscles and nerves with the sharp jerking movements. It is even possible for tissue to be ripped off the bone. 14 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

15 Stretching through movement that is exercise specific Develop functional flexibility Fluid movements-not jerky Challenging http://orgs.jmu.edu/strength/dynamic_warmup_for_soccer.htm

16 Dynamic stretching is a form of stretching beneficial in sports utilizing momentum from form, static-active stretching strength and the momentum from static-active stretching strength, in an effort to propel the muscle into an extended range of motion not exceeding one's static-passive stretching ability. This form of stretching prepares the body for physical exertion and sports performance. Dynamic stretching increases range of movement, blood and oxygen flow to soft tissues prior to exertion. 16 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

17 Most effective Combines methods (active and passive) Promotes increase in strength

18 PNF stretching usually employs the use of a partner to provide resistance against the isometric contraction and then later to passively take the joint through its increased range of motion. 18 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

19 Passive vs. Active Video Clip 19 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

20 The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex) is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. It is a monosynaptic reflex which provides automatic regulation of skeletal muscle length. When a muscle lengthens, the muscle spindle is stretched and its nerve activity increases. This increases alpha motor neuron activity, causing the muscle fibers to contract and thus resist the stretching. A secondary set of neurons also causes the opposing muscle to relax. The reflex functions to maintain the muscle at a constant length. 20 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

21 Muscle Spindles and the Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7T4NI_2qDEM&feature=related Stretch Reflex http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HfuhVWK8C0U&feature=relmfu Tendon Reflex http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lT9XhORYHJ8&feature=relmfu 21 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

22 Maintaining stretch for 15-30 seconds will allow the stretch reflex to subside and permit gains.

23 More than 85% of Americans experience back pain at some time in their lives Low-back pain is the second most common ailment in the United States, headaches being number one Estimated cost is $50 billion a year Back pain can result from sudden traumatic injuries but is more often the result of: Weak and inflexible muscles Poor posture Poor body mechanics during activities What are the Functions of the Spine? 23 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

24 Provides structural support for the body Surrounds and protects the spinal cord Supports body weight Serves as attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments Allows movement of neck and back in all directions 24 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

25 25 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

26 26 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

27 Core muscles include those in the abdomen, pelvic floor, sides of the trunk, back, buttocks, hip, and pelvis There are 29 muscles attaching to the ribs, hips, spinal column, and other bones in the trunk of the body Core muscles stabilize the spine and help transfer force between the upper body and lower body Lack of core muscle fitness can create an unstable spine and stress muscles and joints Whole body exercises and exercises using free weights or stability balls all build core muscle fitness 27 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

28 28

29 Back pain can occur at any point along your spine Any excessive stress upon the spinal column can cause injury and pain Risk factors: Greater than 34 years old Degenerative diseases (arthritis or osteoporosis) Family or personal history Sedentary lifestyle Underlying causes of back pain include : Poor muscle endurance and strength Excessive body weight Poor posture or body position at rest Poor posture body mechanics during activity Previous injuries 29 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

30 Maintain a healthy weight Stop smoking Reduce stress Avoid sitting, standing, or working in the same position for too long Use a supportive seat and a medium-firm mattress Warm up thoroughly before exercising Progress gradually when improving strength and fitness 30 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

31 Symptoms: Pain Muscle spasms Stiffness Inflammation Treatment Apply heat or cold Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication (ibuprofen or naproxen) Gentle flexibility Bed rest See physician if pain doesn't resolve within a short time 31 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

32 32 An exercise program designed to increase flexibility and strengthen the legs, abdomen, and lower back can help prevent low-back pain. When sleeping: Lie on your side with your knees and hips bent. If you lie on your back, place a pillow under your knees. When sitting: Sit with your lower back slightly rounded, knees bent, and feet flat on the floor. Alternate crossing your legs or use a footrest to keep your knees higher than your hips.

33 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 33 When standing: Keep your weight mainly on your heels with one or both knees slightly bent. Try to keep your lower back flat (not arched) by placing one foot on a stool. When walking: Keep your toes pointed straight ahead, your back flat, head up, and chin in. When lifting: Bend at the knees and hips rather than at the waist, and lift gradually using your leg muscles.

34 Do low back exercises at least 3 days per week Muscular endurance rather than strength Don’t do spine exercises involving a full range of motion early in the morning Regular endurance and cardiovascular exercises Be patient and stick to your program “No pain, no gain” doesn’t apply to back exercises 34 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

35 Chapter Five © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


Download ppt "Chapter Five Pgs. 141 - 174 Mrs. Wheeler/Mr. Rath Can you say Yoga? © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google