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Maintaining Flexibility & Back Health

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Presentation on theme: "Maintaining Flexibility & Back Health"— Presentation transcript:

1 Maintaining Flexibility & Back Health
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 Learning Outcomes Articulate how regular stretching and being flexible can benefit your lifelong fitness and wellness. Identify the body structures, body systems, and individual factors that will determine your joint flexibility and back health over time. Use safe and effective stretching exercises and techniques, reducing stretching-related injuries. Implement a safe and effective stretching program that will maintain or improve your flexibility. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Learning Outcomes continued
Evaluate your personal risk for the primary causes of lower-back pain. Incorporate strategies to reduce your risk for (or manage existing) lower-back pain. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 Flexibility and Back Health Key Concepts
The ability of joints to move through a full range of motion Stretching Should be included in a complete fitness program, along with range-of-motion movements © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 What Are the Benefits of Stretching and Flexibility?
Improved mobility, posture, and balance Healthy joints and pain management Possible reduction of future lower-back pain Muscle relaxation and stress relief © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 What Determines My Flexibility?
Flexibility can be classified as static or dynamic. Static (passive) flexibility A measure of the limits of a joint's overall range of motion Dynamic (active) flexibility A measure of overall joint stiffness during movement © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 What Determines My Flexibility? continued
Joint structures, and muscles and tendons Joint: the point of contact between two or more bones Joint stability is supported by surrounding muscles and tendons. Joint range of motion is limited by: Joint structures (cartilage, ligaments, membranes, and fluids) Muscles and tendons (muscles and connective tissues) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Joint Anatomy © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 What Determines My Flexibility? continued
The nervous system Also limits the range of motion in joints Stimulates muscle contractions Has receptors on muscles and tendons that interpret muscular information Receptors include Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles (stretch receptors) When muscles get the message to contract, stretch reflex is triggered © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 What Determines My Flexibility? continued
Individual factors Genetics: Accounts for differences in body structure and tissue elasticity. Gender: Although females are often assumed to be more flexible than males, this may be true only for specific joints. Age: Physical changes related to aging at some point start to affect the body's ability to move. Body type: Typically affects flexibility only at extremes (e.g., excessive amounts of muscle or fat). © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 What Determines My Flexibility? continued
Individual factors Activity level: Inactivity can result in low flexibility levels. Health status: Certain medical conditions may affect joint health and range of motion (for better or for worse). Collagen: When this primary protein of connective tissues is compromised by poor health or medical conditions, loss of motion can result. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 How Can I Assess My Flexibility?
Sit-and-reach test A common measure of flexibility Measures lower back, hip, and hamstring muscle flexibility Range-of-motion tests Evaluate your joints' range of motion as compared to that of others See Lab 5.1 for instructions on both kinds of tests. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 Assessments: Box Sit-and-Reach Test
PLAY Exercise Video: Box Sit-and-Reach Test © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Assessments: Range-of-Motion Tests
PLAY Exercise Video: Joint Range of Motion Tests © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 How Can I Plan a Good Stretching Program?
Set appropriate flexibility goals. Consider what you want to achieve: Maintenance? Improvement? More comfort? Use SMART goals: Specific Measurable Action-oriented Realistic Time-oriented © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 How Can I Plan a Good Stretching Program? continued
Apply the FITT program design principles. Frequency: how often you stretch Intensity: how far you stretch Time: how long you hold or repeat a stretch Type: which kinds of stretches you use © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 Flexibility Training Guidelines
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 Types of Stretches Static stretching
Involves moving slowly into a stretch and holding it Simplest and safest method; allows muscles to recover Dynamic stretching Involves stretching through movement Mimics the motions of activities, but more slowly © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 Types of Stretches continued
Ballistic stretching Involves bouncing, jerky movements, and high momentum Can be beneficial to athletes in specific ballistic sports Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) Contracts targeted muscle groups to encourage relaxation © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 A Sample PNF Partner Exercise
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Pros and Cons of Common Stretching Methods
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 Consider Taking a Class
Options for exploring new ways to incorporate stretching: Yoga: combines mental focus and physical effort Tai chi: uses slow, smooth movements Pilates: uses exercises and equipment to stretch and strengthen muscles Dance: improves flexibility and overall fitness © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Flexibility Tools © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 How Can I Avoid Stretching-Related Injuries?
Stretch only warm muscles. Perform stretches safely. Know which exercises can cause injury. Be especially cautious if you are hyperflexible or inflexible. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Contraindicated Stretches and Safe Alternatives
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 How Can I Prevent or Manage Back Pain?
Understand the main causes of back pain: Muscular weakness, inflexibility, and imbalance Improper posture and body mechanics Acute trauma Risky occupations Medical issues © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 How Can I Prevent or Manage Back Pain? continued
Understand how the back is supported. Spine structure: Designed to absorb force Has four distinct regions and curvatures Core trunk muscles: Support the spinal column and curvatures Include the back, abdominal, hip, gluteal, pelvis, pelvic floor, and lateral trunk muscles © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Basic Structure of the Spine
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 Spine-Supporting Core Muscles
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 How Can I Prevent or Manage Back Pain? continued
Reduce your risk of lower-back pain. Lose weight. Strengthen and stretch key muscles. Maintain good posture and body mechanics. Properly treat lower-back pain. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 Proper Posture for a Healthy Back
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Proper Posture for a Healthy Back
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

33 Proper Posture for a Healthy Back
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 Proper Posture for a Healthy Back
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 Proper Posture for a Healthy Back
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 Assessments: Posture Evaluation
PLAY Exercise Video: Posture Evaluation © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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