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Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Section IV: Concept 13: Body Mechanics, Posture and Care of the Back and Neck.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Section IV: Concept 13: Body Mechanics, Posture and Care of the Back and Neck."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Section IV: Concept 13: Body Mechanics, Posture and Care of the Back and Neck

2 2Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Back Facts 80% of the population will experience some form of back pain at some point during their lifetime. 80% of the population will experience some form of back pain at some point during their lifetime. Back problems problems account for 40% of all work days missed due to injury or illness. Back problems problems account for 40% of all work days missed due to injury or illness.

3 3Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Back Facts Back pain is the most common cause of inactivity in the 45 and older age group. Back pain is the most common cause of inactivity in the 45 and older age group. Backache is second only to headache as a common medical complaint. Backache is second only to headache as a common medical complaint.

4 4Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Potential Causes of Back or Neck Pain Muscle Tension Muscle Tension Arthritis Arthritis Bone spurs Bone spurs Degenerated disk Degenerated disk Herniated disk Herniated disk There is an increased risk of all of these conditions with age See image of spinal column

5 5Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Causes of Back Pain With age, the disk degenerates and the space for the nerve roots is reduced. Bone spurs and arthritis can impinge on the nerves and cause pain

6 6Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Impact from Repeated Use of Bad Exercises Certain exercises or movements put the back at risk and should be avoided Certain exercises or movements put the back at risk and should be avoided

7 7Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Risk Factors for Back Problems Non-modifiable: Non-modifiable: –Family history (osteoporosis/joint problems) –Age Modifiable: Modifiable: –Postural: Poor postural habits –Physical: Poor fitness in low back area –Behavioral: Lifestyle behaviors »Dangerous exercises or movements »Frequent or improper lifting »Extended standing or extended sitting Click for lab 13a info

8 What is Good Posture? Minimal stress on the vertebral joints and supporting ligaments. Minimal stress on the vertebral joints and supporting ligaments. Body segments balanced around the center of gravity Body segments balanced around the center of gravity Bad Good

9 9Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Elements of Good Standing Posture Head centered - chin level Head centered - chin level Chest high - not strained Chest high - not strained Shoulders down and back Shoulders down and back Abdomen flat ("suck and tuck") Abdomen flat ("suck and tuck") Knees straight and relaxed Knees straight and relaxed Feet parallel and weight balanced Feet parallel and weight balanced Click for lab 13b info

10 10Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Causes of Poor Posture Hereditary Hereditary Poor fitness Poor fitness Lack of knowledge Lack of knowledge Bad habits Bad habits

11 11Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Postural Problems: Scoliosis Most severe condition Most severe condition Characterized by a curved spine Characterized by a curved spine Congenital or acquired Congenital or acquired Corrected with braces, exercises or operations Corrected with braces, exercises or operations

12 12Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Postural Problems: Lumbar Lordosis Most common condition Most common condition Characterized by "sway back" posture Characterized by "sway back" posture Results from weak abdominals and short hip flexors Results from weak abdominals and short hip flexors

13 13Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Lumbar Lordosis Weak abdominals and short hip flexors tip the pelvis forward and increase back strain

14 14Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Proper Posture Strong abdominals and flexible hip flexors keep the pelvis neutral and the body in alignment

15 15Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Strategies for Promoting Back Health Postural Influences Postural Influences Physical Influences Physical Influences Behavioral Influences Behavioral Influences Each of these categories is described in subsequent slides

16 16Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Back Care Tips - Postural When standing keep the lower back flat (stand with one foot on a stool) When standing keep the lower back flat (stand with one foot on a stool) When sitting avoid slouching (see graphic on next slide) When sitting avoid slouching (see graphic on next slide) When lying keep knees and hips bent (avoid lying on stomach) When lying keep knees and hips bent (avoid lying on stomach) When sleeping use a firm mattress When sleeping use a firm mattress

17 17Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Slouching Increases Strain on Low Back Slouching in a chair increases the pressure on the vertebral disks and can lead to back pain Slouching in a chair increases the pressure on the vertebral disks and can lead to back pain Note: similar position of spine when bending over

18 18Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Back Care Tips - Physical Strengthen abdominal muscles Strengthen abdominal muscles Strengthen hip extensors Strengthen hip extensors Stretch hip flexors Stretch hip flexors Stretch hamstrings Stretch hamstrings Click for lab 13c info Example of Swiss Ball Exercises Example of Strength Machines

19 19Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Back Health Tips - Behavioral Avoid hazardous exercises Avoid hazardous exercises Avoid sudden jerky back movements Avoid sudden jerky back movements Avoid improper lifting and carrying Avoid improper lifting and carrying Click for more info

20 20Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Web Resources On the Web On the Web pages for Concept Online Learning Center

21 Supplementary Graphics Lab Information Additional Graphics

22 22Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Lab 13a Information The Healthy Back Test Complete the risk factor questionnaire to evaluate back health risks. Complete the risk factor questionnaire to evaluate back health risks. The questionnaire includes demographic questions, behavioral questions as well as scores from a back test and postural evaluations. The questionnaire includes demographic questions, behavioral questions as well as scores from a back test and postural evaluations. Return to presentation

23 23Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Lab 13b Information Evaluating Posture Have a partner perform a postural evaluation based on the criteria listed on the evaluation chart. Have a partner perform a postural evaluation based on the criteria listed on the evaluation chart. Discuss any deviations that were moderate or severe and whether you feel the ratings were informative for you. Discuss any deviations that were moderate or severe and whether you feel the ratings were informative for you. Return to presentation

24 24Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Lab 13c Information Logging Exercises for Back Care Based on results of Healthy Back Test, plan exercises to help improve your back fitness. Based on results of Healthy Back Test, plan exercises to help improve your back fitness. Log your efforts to complete these exercises during the week. Log your efforts to complete these exercises during the week. Return to presentation

25 25Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Poor Lifting Technique The poor leverage used here to lift a 50 lb box causes extreme forces to be imparted on the spine. The poor leverage used here to lift a 50 lb box causes extreme forces to be imparted on the spine. –750 pounds of tensile force on the muscles of the low back –850 pounds of compressional force on the lumbar disks

26 26Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Back Care Tips: Lifting and Carrying Stand close and assume a wide base Stand close and assume a wide base Maintain normal lordotic curve and bend at the hips and knees Maintain normal lordotic curve and bend at the hips and knees Keep object close to the bodys center of gravity Keep object close to the bodys center of gravity Avoid hyperextending the neck or back when lifting Avoid hyperextending the neck or back when lifting

27 27Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Demonstration of Bad and Good Lifting Technique Return to presentation

28 Functions of Spinal Column Load bearing Load bearing Permits movement Permits movement Protects spinal cord Protects spinal cord Return to presentation

29 29Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Swiss Ball Exercises See On the Web 13-3 for more on swiss balls Return to presentation

30 30Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Resistance Machines for Back Strength See On the Web13-4 for more on MedX equipment or visit Return to presentation


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