Hunger and the Brain Hypothalamus – lateral hypothalamus initiation of hunger and eating – ventromedial hypothalamus cessation of hunger and eating Neurotransmitters
Obesity and Eating Behavior Psychological Factors In the past, the focus was on – emotional state – external food cues Current research is focusing on – time and place cues – sugar and fat content
Disordered Eating Anorexia Nervosa – relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation – more common among females – main characteristics less than 85% of normal weight unsupported fear of gaining weight distorted body image amenorrhea – medical dangers and mortality
Disordered Eating Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia – sociocultural media images family interactions – biological genetics serotonin regulation neurological effects of dieting, binging, purging
Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation – organismic needs + enjoyability – key to achievement Extrinsic Motivation – incentives (rewards, punishments) Does extrinsic motivation undermine intrinsic motivation?
Self-Determination Theory Three Basic Organismic Needs 1. competence self-efficacy, mastery, expectations for success 2. relatedness warm relations with others, need to belong 3. autonomy independence and self-reliance