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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation.

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Presentation on theme: "©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation

2 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation) Biological Theories: 1.Instinct--inborn, unlearned behaviors universal to species explain motivation 2.Drive-Reduction--internal tensions “push” toward satisfying basic needs 3.Arousal--motivated toward optimal level of arousal

3 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Drive-Reduction Theory

4 Hunger and the Brain Hypothalamus – lateral hypothalamus initiation of hunger and eating – ventromedial hypothalamus cessation of hunger and eating Neurotransmitters

5 Obesity and Eating Behavior Psychological Factors In the past, the focus was on – emotional state – external food cues Current research is focusing on – time and place cues – sugar and fat content

6 Disordered Eating Anorexia Nervosa – relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation – more common among females – main characteristics less than 85% of normal weight unsupported fear of gaining weight distorted body image amenorrhea – medical dangers and mortality

7 Disordered Eating Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia – sociocultural media images family interactions – biological genetics serotonin regulation neurological effects of dieting, binging, purging

8 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Arousal Theory People seek an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance.

9 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation Cont.) Psychosocial Theories: 1.Incentive--motivation results from the “pull” of external environmental stimuli 2.Cognitive--motivation affected by attributions and expectations

10 Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation – organismic needs + enjoyability – key to achievement Extrinsic Motivation – incentives (rewards, punishments) Does extrinsic motivation undermine intrinsic motivation?

11 Self-Determination Theory Three Basic Organismic Needs 1. competence self-efficacy, mastery, expectations for success 2. relatedness warm relations with others, need to belong 3. autonomy independence and self-reliance

12 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Biopsychosocial Theory: 1.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: interaction of biological, psychological, and social needs; lower motives (physiological and safety) must be met before higher needs (belonging, self- esteem) Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation Cont.)

13 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

14 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Social Motivation: Why make friends? Evolutionary Psychology: Using Darwinian principles to explain human nature. Being nice, making friends must have offered some fitness advantage for our ancestors Evolution of niceness: – Kin selection: being nice to those with similar genetics

15 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Kin selection There are a number of examples of what appear to be altruistic behaviors among animals. Most are explainable as examples of kin selection.

16 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Reciprocity: You scratch my back I’ll scratch yours Non related individuals sometimes engage in reciprocal arrangements, vampire bats share blood, chimps groom for food

17 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Indirect reciprocity: being nice to the nice Some animals are sensitive to reputation and restrict reciprocal interactions to only those who have a history of playing fair

18 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) So why are humans friendly to each other? Kin bias Reciprocal arrangements Reputational rewards

19 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Human Mate Attraction Using an evolutionary approach to explain why we are attracted to certain traits in members of the opposite sex. Operates at level of “gut” attractions, not conscious evaluation Identifies what types of attractions in members of opposite sex would have enhanced reproductive success in our ancestral past. Argues that problems of optimizing reproductive success would have been different for males and females, and thus would have lead to somewhat different reproductive strategies and attractions.

20 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Thomas Aquinas on Marriage We observe that in those animals, dogs for instance, in which the female herself suffices for the rearing of the offspring, the male and female stay no time together after the sexual act. But in animals in which the female herself does not suffice for the rearing of the offspring, male and female dwell together after the sexual act so long as is necessary for the rearing and training of the offspring. This appears in birds whose young are incapable of their own food after they are hatched…Hence, whereas it is necessary in all animals for the male to stand by the female for such a time as the father’s concurrence is requisite for bringing up the progeny, it is natural for man to be tied to…one woman for a long period…(SCG B3 Q122).

21 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Challenges to reproductive success: Males vs. Females Advantages of being male: – Cheap sperm: relatively low parental investment cost Disadvantage: low paternity certainty Advantage of being female: High maternity certainty Disadvantage: costly eggs: relatively high parental investment

22 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Buss: Global study on mate attraction Over 10,000 subjects from over 30 countries across the globe. Female attractions: decrease parental investment by getting good genes and copious resources Male long-term mate attractions: increase paternity certainty, while maximizing reproductive output

23 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Male Attractions: Long-term mates – desire for youth

24 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Male Attractions: Beauty

25 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Male Attractions: Chastity

26 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Male Attractions: Long-term mates Summary 1. Youth/Beauty: increase reproductive value in single mate 2. Chastity/youth: increasing paternity certainty in offspring to be resourced

27 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved female attractions: Long-term mates Age

28 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved female attractions: long-term mates Financial Prospects

29 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Female attractions: Long-term mates Good genes

30 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Evolved Female attractions: Long-term mates Good genes

31 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Female evolved attractions: summary 1. Older mate/good financial prospects: status, stability, resources 2. Cues of masculinity: good genes 3. interaction with ovulatory cycle: evidence for cuckoldry strategy?

32 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Human mate attraction: Long term mates Males: young, beautiful, sexually modest Reproductive value; paternity certainty Females: older, high-status (or potential), robust Good genetics, stable secure source of resources.

33 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cross-cultural signally

34 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Risks of step-parenting. Note: Violent step parents represent less than 1% of step families

35 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Darwinian strategy to happy marriage For females: Men want paternity certainty, so avoid all jealousy-arousing behavior (don’t even look at other men). Also, take good care of his genes (offspring). For males: Women want resources. All the money is hers. Avoid spending money in any way she dislikes. For both: Both want health (good genes, fertility, etc.) Take care of yourselves. Have some kids – lower divorce rate among couples with kids.


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