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Year 9 CHB. Yr 9 Student Aims By the end of the lesson you should be able to: 1. Describe the three states of matter 2. Describe changes of state 3. Describe.

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Presentation on theme: "Year 9 CHB. Yr 9 Student Aims By the end of the lesson you should be able to: 1. Describe the three states of matter 2. Describe changes of state 3. Describe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Year 9 CHB

2 Yr 9 Student Aims By the end of the lesson you should be able to: 1. Describe the three states of matter 2. Describe changes of state 3. Describe the processes of compression and diffusion 4. Use common equipment to measure temperature, volume, weight and time. 5. Understand and use the SI units and prefixes 6. Be able to draw a line graph detailing all main requirements 7. Design a Fair test.

3 Matter Literacy Sheet Matter Literacy Sheet

4 Matter Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Everything is made up of solids,liquids and gases. Everything is made up of solids,liquids and gases. The universe is made up of matter. The universe is made up of matter. The three states of matter are Solids, Liquids and Gases. The three states of matter are Solids, Liquids and Gases.

5 Do now: Matter Cryptogram Sheet Matter Cryptogram Sheet (Cryptogram- type of puzzle which consists of a short piece of coded text)

6 Matter Cryptogram

7 Answer Everything in the universe is made up of matter. Some matter you can see; like water or metal. Other matter is invisible; like air. There are three states of matter solids, liquids and gases. Matter can change from one state to another. Like when water freezes into ice. Everything in the universe is made up of matter. Some matter you can see; like water or metal. Other matter is invisible; like air. There are three states of matter solids, liquids and gases. Matter can change from one state to another. Like when water freezes into ice.

8 Three States of Matter

9 Identify TrayAnswers 1 2 3

10 Tray 3 Name the gas: Name the gas: 1. That you use to blow up a balloon? 2. That you breathe in? 3. That helps you cook food? 4. That you get when you boil water? 5. That combines with oxygen gas to make water?

11 Answers TrayAnswers 1 Lollies, Ruler, Scissors,Wood,Chalk 2 Glue, Water, Honey, Vinegar, Juice 3 Carbon-dioxide,Oxygen, LPG, Steam,Hydrogen

12 Answers TrayAnswers 1Solids Lollies, Ruler, Scissors,Wood,Chalk 2Liquids Glue, Water, Honey, Vinegar, Juice 3Gases Carbon-dioxide, Oxygen, LPG, Steam,Hydrogen

13

14 H.W.- Solids, Liquids and Gases- Cryptogram

15 Do now: All matter is made of ________. All matter is made of ________. In a solid the particles are packed _____ together and ______ in place, so they cannot move about. In a solid the particles are packed _____ together and ______ in place, so they cannot move about. In a liquid the particles are close together but they can move about _____. In a liquid the particles are close together but they can move about _____. In ____ the particles are far apart and move about quickly. In ____ the particles are far apart and move about quickly.

16 Do now (Answers): All matter is made of particles. All matter is made of particles. In a solid the particles are packed close together and fixed in place, so they cannot move about. In a solid the particles are packed close together and fixed in place, so they cannot move about. In a liquid the particles are close together but they can move about freely. In a liquid the particles are close together but they can move about freely. In gas the particles are far apart and move about quickly. In gas the particles are far apart and move about quickly.

17 While you watch the Video: States of matter Properties Can be weighed Occupy space Fixed shape Fixed volume Can be compressed SolidsY LiquidsY GasesY

18 Video on Matter

19 Answers States of matter Properties Can be weighed Occupy space Fixed shape Fixed volume Can be compressed SolidsYYYYN LiquidsYYNYN GasesYYNNY

20 Solids, Liquids and Gases- Cryptogram

21 Answer All matter is made of paricles. There are three states of matter: Solids, Liquids and Gases. In each state of matter the particles are arranged differently. Ina solid the particles are packed close together in neat rows,they are fixed in place so cannot move about. In liquids the particles are close together and touch each other but they can move about freely. In gases the particles are far apart, they have lots of energy and move about quickly, they bounce off the walls of the container that the gas is in. All matter is made of paricles. There are three states of matter: Solids, Liquids and Gases. In each state of matter the particles are arranged differently. Ina solid the particles are packed close together in neat rows,they are fixed in place so cannot move about. In liquids the particles are close together and touch each other but they can move about freely. In gases the particles are far apart, they have lots of energy and move about quickly, they bounce off the walls of the container that the gas is in.

22 Particle Theory of Matter All matter is made up of extremely tiny particles. All matter is made up of extremely tiny particles. Each substance has its own kind of particle, different from the particles of other substances. Each substance has its own kind of particle, different from the particles of other substances. Particles attract each other and are always moving. Particles attract each other and are always moving. Particles at a higher temperature move faster than particles at a lower temperature. Particles at a higher temperature move faster than particles at a lower temperature.

23

24 Forces between particles in: Solids- Attractive forces hold position and shape of solid. Liquids-Attractive forces between particles hold the volume but allow fluidity. Gases-Almost no attractive forces between particles of a gas.

25 Do now: Name the process involved: Solid state Gas state Solid state Gas state Liquid state Solid state Liquid state Solid state Liquid state Gas state Liquid state Gas state Solid state Liquid state Solid state Liquid state Gas state Liquid state Gas state Liquid state

26 Changing states of matter

27 Terms What they mean? Melting Change of state from a solid to a liquid. The temperture at which the solid substance melts is called melting point. The melting point of ice is 0 degree celsius. Freezing or Solidification Change of state form a liquid to a solid. The temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid is called its freezing point. Freezing point of water is 0 degree celsius. Condensation When gas particles come in contact with a cool object, they change back to a liquid state. This is called condensation. Boiling Rapid change from a liquid to a gas state & occurs at a fixed temp- the boiling point. Water boils at 100 degree celsius to produce steam.

28 Terms What they mean? Evaporation Liquids slowly change to a gas state if left open to the air. This process at everyday temp. and higher is called evaporation. Water eveporates to form water vapour. Sublimation Change of state directly from a solid state to a gas state.

29 Name the process involved:

30 Melting Freezing Ice Water

31 Condensation

32 BoilingEvaporation

33 Do Now: Draw the triangle of changing states of matter Draw the triangle of changing states of matter

34 Changing states of matter

35 Sublimation Change of state directly from a solid state to a gas state. Dry ice (Solid Carbon-dioxide) is at – 78 degree celsius Solid carbon dioxide Gaseous Carbon dioxide

36 Dry Ice Activities

37 Precautions while using Dry Ice Due to its extremely cold temperature, dry ice can cause damage to the skin (frost bite). Do not hold it in your hand for longer than a second. Use tongs/gloves while handling dry ice. Due to its extremely cold temperature, dry ice can cause damage to the skin (frost bite). Do not hold it in your hand for longer than a second. Use tongs/gloves while handling dry ice. Wear safety glasses. Wear safety glasses. Never eat or swallow dry ice – VERY DANGEROUS. Never eat or swallow dry ice – VERY DANGEROUS. Avoid inhaling carbon dioxide gas. Avoid inhaling carbon dioxide gas.

38 Dry Ice and Candle Dry Ice vapour

39 Dry Ice in a Balloon With Dry Ice in it With Dry Ice in the bottle

40 Dry Ice in Hot/Warm Water This white fog is not the CO 2 gas, but rather it is condensed water vapour, mixed in with the invisible CO 2. The extreme cold causes the water vapour to condense into clouds. This white fog is not the CO 2 gas, but rather it is condensed water vapour, mixed in with the invisible CO 2. The extreme cold causes the water vapour to condense into clouds.

41 Dry Ice with Universal Indicator Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form acid which changes the colour of indicator. BaseAcid

42 Dry Ice with Soap Water Instead of the dry ice just bubbling in the water to make a cloud, the soap in the water traps the carbon dioxide and water vapour in the form of a bubble. Instead of the dry ice just bubbling in the water to make a cloud, the soap in the water traps the carbon dioxide and water vapour in the form of a bubble.

43 Make a Spoon Sing! As soon as the warm spoon touches the dry ice, the dry ice sublimates and carbon dioxide is produced which tries to escape but the spoon will try and prevent this from happening. As soon as the warm spoon touches the dry ice, the dry ice sublimates and carbon dioxide is produced which tries to escape but the spoon will try and prevent this from happening. In this process, when the spoon is pressed against dry ice, it is forced away slightly because of the large amount of gas that is produced. But because of the pressure that you are applying on the spoon, the spoon will fall back. In this process, when the spoon is pressed against dry ice, it is forced away slightly because of the large amount of gas that is produced. But because of the pressure that you are applying on the spoon, the spoon will fall back. This vibration of the spoon causes a loud singing like sound which people standing around the table can distinctly hear. This vibration of the spoon causes a loud singing like sound which people standing around the table can distinctly hear.

44 Do Now: Change of state directly from a solid state to a gas state is called ________. Change of state directly from a solid state to a gas state is called ________. Temperature of dry ice is ______. Temperature of dry ice is ______. Dry ice sublimates to form ______ -________ gas. Dry ice sublimates to form ______ -________ gas. Dry ice is also called fire extinguisher because it does not support _______. Dry ice is also called fire extinguisher because it does not support _______. Fog produced by dry ice in warm water is condensed _____ _______ mixed with carbon- dioxide. Fog produced by dry ice in warm water is condensed _____ _______ mixed with carbon- dioxide.

45 Do Now(answers): Change of state directly from a solid state to a gas state is called sublimation. Change of state directly from a solid state to a gas state is called sublimation. Temperature of dry ice is -78 degree celsius. Temperature of dry ice is -78 degree celsius. Dry ice sublimates to form carbon - dioxide gas. Dry ice sublimates to form carbon - dioxide gas. Dry ice is also called fire extinguisher because it does not support burning. Dry ice is also called fire extinguisher because it does not support burning. Fog produced by dry ice in warm water is condensed water vapour mixed with carbon dioxide. Fog produced by dry ice in warm water is condensed water vapour mixed with carbon dioxide.

46 H.W.-Match the following terms with their meanings: Mattera)substance which has no fixed shape and fills containers States of matter b) temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid Solidc) temperature at which a solid melts Liquidd) temperature at which a liquid boils into a gas Gase) substance which has fixed volume & takes shape of container Melting pointf) how hot or cold an object is Freezing pointg) what substances and objects are made of Boiling pointh) states in which matter exists, e.g. solid, liquid, gas Temperaturei) substance which has fixed shape and volume

47 Answer Matterg) what substances and objects are made of States of matter h) states in which matter exists, e.g. solid, liquid, gas Solidi) substance which has fixed shape and volume Liquide) substance which has fixed volume & takes shape of container Gasa) substance which has no fixed shape and fills containers Melting pointc) temperature at which a solid melts Freezing pointb) temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid Boiling pointd) temperature at which a liquid boils into a gas Temperaturef) how hot or cold an object is

48 Water Solid Gas Liquid

49 Where is water?

50

51 In Water Cycle, water changes state between soild, liquid and _____. In Water Cycle, water changes state between soild, liquid and _____. When water from the ocean is heated by the sun, it changes into water-vapour. This is called ________. When water from the ocean is heated by the sun, it changes into water-vapour. This is called ________. Water vapour evaporates from the plants by a process called __________. Water vapour evaporates from the plants by a process called __________. Water-vapour in the atmosphere cools to form _______. This is called condensation. Water-vapour in the atmosphere cools to form _______. This is called condensation. Water from clouds comes down to the ground in the form of rain or snow. This is called _________. Water from clouds comes down to the ground in the form of rain or snow. This is called _________. Do Now: Water Cycle

52 Do Now (answers): Water Cycle In Water Cycle, water changes state between soild, liquid and gas. In Water Cycle, water changes state between soild, liquid and gas. When water from the ocean is heated by the sun, it changes into water-vapour. This is called evaporation. When water from the ocean is heated by the sun, it changes into water-vapour. This is called evaporation. Water vapour evaporates from the plants by a process called transpiration. Water vapour evaporates from the plants by a process called transpiration. Water-vapour in the atmosphere cools to form clouds. This is called condensation. Water-vapour in the atmosphere cools to form clouds. This is called condensation. Water from clouds comes down to the ground in the form of rain or snow. This is called precipitation. Water from clouds comes down to the ground in the form of rain or snow. This is called precipitation.

53 Do Now: Water can exist in three forms- ______, liquid and _____. Water can exist in three forms- ______, liquid and _____. Water is found almost everywhere- in rivers, ______, streams, lakes,etc. Water is found almost everywhere- in rivers, ______, streams, lakes,etc. Water is also found in our ______. It regulates the __________ of our body. Water is also found in our ______. It regulates the __________ of our body. Clouds are formed by cooling of _____ - ________. Clouds are formed by cooling of _____ - ________.

54 Do Now(answers): Water can exist in three forms- solid, liquid and gas. Water can exist in three forms- solid, liquid and gas. Water is found almost everywhere- in rivers, oceans, streams, lakes,etc. Water is found almost everywhere- in rivers, oceans, streams, lakes,etc. Water is also found in our body. It regulates the temperature of our body. Water is also found in our body. It regulates the temperature of our body. Clouds are formed by cooling of water - vapour. Clouds are formed by cooling of water - vapour.

55

56 Water Cycle

57 Water Cycle Worksheet

58 Do Now:

59

60 Test

61 Do Now: Water can exist in three forms- ______, liquid and _____. Water can exist in three forms- ______, liquid and _____. When water from the ocean is heated by the sun, it changes into water-vapour. This is called ________. When water from the ocean is heated by the sun, it changes into water-vapour. This is called ________. Water vapour evaporates from the plants by a process called __________. Water vapour evaporates from the plants by a process called __________. Water-vapour in the atmosphere cools to form _______. This is called condensation. Water-vapour in the atmosphere cools to form _______. This is called condensation. Water from clouds comes down to the ground in the form of rain or snow. This is called _________. Water from clouds comes down to the ground in the form of rain or snow. This is called _________.

62 Do Now (answers): Water can exist in three forms- solids, liquid and gas. Water can exist in three forms- solids, liquid and gas. When water from the ocean is heated by the sun, it changes into water-vapour. This is called evaporation. When water from the ocean is heated by the sun, it changes into water-vapour. This is called evaporation. Water vapour evaporates from the plants by a process called transpiration. Water vapour evaporates from the plants by a process called transpiration. Water-vapour in the atmosphere cools to form clouds. This is called condensation. Water-vapour in the atmosphere cools to form clouds. This is called condensation. Water from clouds comes down to the ground in the form of rain or snow. This is called precipitation. Water from clouds comes down to the ground in the form of rain or snow. This is called precipitation.

63 Water Cycle Worksheet

64

65 Demonstration (hot and cold water) Potassium permanganate Potassium permanganate Tea bag Tea bag Methylene blue Methylene blue

66 Do now: Describe what happened: Potassium permanganate in: Potassium permanganate in: Cold water- Cold water- Hot water- Hot water- Tea bag in: Tea bag in: Cold water- Cold water- Hot water- Hot water- Methylene blue in: Methylene blue in: Cold water- Cold water- Hot water- Hot water-

67 Do now (answers): Describe what happened: Potassium permanganate in: Potassium permanganate in: Cold water- Purple colour spreads slowly. Cold water- Purple colour spreads slowly. Hot water- Purple colour spreads fast. Hot water- Purple colour spreads fast. Tea bag in: Tea bag in: Cold water- Blackish colour appears slowly. Cold water- Blackish colour appears slowly. Hot water- Blackish colour appears fast. Hot water- Blackish colour appears fast. Methylene blue in: Methylene blue in: Cold water- Blue colour spreads slowly. Cold water- Blue colour spreads slowly. Hot water- Blue colour spreads fast. Hot water- Blue colour spreads fast.

68 Diffusion Gradual mixing of substances is called diffusion. Gradual mixing of substances is called diffusion.

69 Perfume Bottle If a bottle of perfume is opened in one part of a room you can smell it in the other parts of the room. If a bottle of perfume is opened in one part of a room you can smell it in the other parts of the room.

70 Potassium Permanganate in water

71 Both crystal of potassium permanganate and water are made of particles. Both crystal of potassium permanganate and water are made of particles. Particles leave crystal and move into the spaces among the water particles. This is the process of dissolving. Particles leave crystal and move into the spaces among the water particles. This is the process of dissolving. As the particles continue to move they diffuse throughout the water and the purple colour spreads evenly. As the particles continue to move they diffuse throughout the water and the purple colour spreads evenly. Potassium Permanganate in water

72 Brownian Motion Small visible particles move randomly. Small visible particles move randomly. The molecules of air are in constant motion and when they strike dust particles they cause the random motion we see. The molecules of air are in constant motion and when they strike dust particles they cause the random motion we see.

73 Compression

74

75 A solid has fixed volume and shape and is hard to compress than a gas or a liquid. A solid has fixed volume and shape and is hard to compress than a gas or a liquid. A liquid is fairly incompressible and has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. It takes the shape of its container. Gas is easily compressible. This means that a given quantity of gas will fit into a container of any size and shape. A gas has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape.

76 Do Now: Gradual mixing of substances is called _______. Gradual mixing of substances is called _______. Particles of potassium permanganate diffuse throughout the water and the ______ colour spreads evenly. Particles of potassium permanganate diffuse throughout the water and the ______ colour spreads evenly. Small visible particles move randomly. This is called ________ motion. Small visible particles move randomly. This is called ________ motion.

77 Do Now: Gradual mixing of substances is called diffusion. Gradual mixing of substances is called diffusion. Particles of potassium permanganate diffuse throughout the water and the purple colour spreads evenly. Particles of potassium permanganate diffuse throughout the water and the purple colour spreads evenly. Small visible particles move randomly. This is called brownian motion. Small visible particles move randomly. This is called brownian motion.

78 Do Now: Write down the name of common equipment used to measure : Write down the name of common equipment used to measure : a. Temperature a. Temperature b. Volume b. Volume c. Mass c. Mass d. Time d. Time Write down the unit of measurement for a,b,c and d as above. Write down the unit of measurement for a,b,c and d as above.

79 Measuring Temperature using Thermometer Unit- degree celsius ( 0 C ) Unit- degree celsius ( 0 C )

80 How to use a Thermometer? Observe the thermometer to identify the unit it is measured in. Observe the thermometer to identify the unit it is measured in. Identify the range of your thermometer. Identify the range of your thermometer. Work out what each interval (gap between two smallest marks) measures. Work out what each interval (gap between two smallest marks) measures. Find major and minor marks on thermometer. Find major and minor marks on thermometer. When you take temperature: When you take temperature: a. Place the bulb in substance for 2-3 minutes. a. Place the bulb in substance for 2-3 minutes. b. Locate the nearest major or minor mark below the top of liquid. b. Locate the nearest major or minor mark below the top of liquid. c. Count the number of intervals upto the top of the liquid. c. Count the number of intervals upto the top of the liquid.

81 Measuring Volume using Graduated Cylinder

82 Unit- milliliter (ml) Unit- milliliter (ml) Note the range of the graduated cylinder. Note the range of the graduated cylinder. Work out what each interval (gap between two smallest marks) measures. Work out what each interval (gap between two smallest marks) measures.

83 Measuring Volume using Graduated Cylinder A characteristic of liquids in glass containers is that they curve at the edges. This curvature is called the meniscus. A characteristic of liquids in glass containers is that they curve at the edges. This curvature is called the meniscus. Measure the level at the horizontal center or inside part of the meniscus. With water in glass, the meniscus will curve up at the edges and down in the center so we read the bottom of the meniscus. Measure the level at the horizontal center or inside part of the meniscus. With water in glass, the meniscus will curve up at the edges and down in the center so we read the bottom of the meniscus.

84 The Meniscus

85 Measuring Time using Stop watch

86 Time measured in seconds, minutes and hours. Start the stop watch using Start Button when you need to. Stop the stop watch using Stop Button when you have finished. Note the time down.

87 Instructions for experiment: Use glassware carefully. Do not break it. Use thermometers carefully. Do not break it. Use stop watches in the best possible manner.

88 Measuring Mass using Electronic Balance

89 Switch it ON a little while before you want to use it so that it can stabilise. Make sure the pan is clean. Place the substance to be weighed on it gently. Wait for the reading to be constant and note it down. NO VIBRATIONS OR JERKY MOVEMENTS AT ANY STAGE.

90 Measuring mass using Triple Beam Balance

91 Triple Beam Balance

92 Using Triple Beam Balance To find the mass of an object using a triple beam balance, place the object on the measurement tray and adjust the positions of the three riders on the rider beams until the pointer lines up with the zero mark. To find the mass of an object using a triple beam balance, place the object on the measurement tray and adjust the positions of the three riders on the rider beams until the pointer lines up with the zero mark. The mass of the object can then be found by adding the values indicated by the three riders. The mass of the object can then be found by adding the values indicated by the three riders. A. The middle beam reads only in 100 g increments. B. The far beam reads only in 10 g increments. The weights in each of these must always sit in a "notch". They cannot be placed at arbitrary points on the beam. C. The weight on the front beam can be placed to read continuously from 0 to 10 grams. A. The middle beam reads only in 100 g increments. B. The far beam reads only in 10 g increments. The weights in each of these must always sit in a "notch". They cannot be placed at arbitrary points on the beam. C. The weight on the front beam can be placed to read continuously from 0 to 10 grams.

93 Using Triple Beam Balance weblab/TBBread.html

94 Do Now: A ________ change occurs when there is change in the physical property of an object or substance. A ________ change occurs when there is change in the physical property of an object or substance. Examples of physical change- Examples of physical change- a. melting ice block (solid _______) a. melting ice block (solid _______) b. boiling water (liquid _____) b. boiling water (liquid _____) c. dissolving sugar (______ liquid) c. dissolving sugar (______ liquid) Physical changes are reversible since no _____ substances are formed. Physical changes are reversible since no _____ substances are formed.

95 Do Now: A physical change occurs when there is change in the physical property of an object or substance. A physical change occurs when there is change in the physical property of an object or substance. Examples of physical change- Examples of physical change- a. melting ice block (solid liquid) a. melting ice block (solid liquid) b. boiling water (liquid gas) b. boiling water (liquid gas) c. dissolving sugar (solid liquid) c. dissolving sugar (solid liquid) Physical changes are reversible since no new substances are formed. Physical changes are reversible since no new substances are formed.

96 Bunsen Burner

97 Common piece of laboratory equipment that is used for heating, burning and sterilization.

98

99 Bunsen Burner If the collar at the bottom of the tube is open fully, air can mix with the gas before combustion. The flame will burn hotter, appearing blue as a result. If the holes are closed, the gas will only mix with air at the point of combustion only after it has exited the tube at the top. This reduced mixing produces an incomplete reaction and a cooler but brighter yellow flame called the "safety flame" or "luminous flame". The yellow flame is considered "dirty" because it leaves a layer of carbon (soot) on whatever it is heating.

100 S.I. Units and Prefixes S.I.- also known as International system of units. S.I.- also known as International system of units. S.I. prefix- Name or associated symbol that precedes a basic unit of measure. S.I. prefix- Name or associated symbol that precedes a basic unit of measure.

101 Commonly used S.I. units and symbols

102 Quantity measuredUnitSymbolRelationship Length, width, distance, thickness millimetermm10 mm=1 cm centimetercm100 cm=1 m meterm kilometerkm1 km=1000 m Mass (weight)* milligrammg1000 mg=1 g gramg kilogramkg1 kg=1000 g metric tont1 t=1000 kg Timeseconds Temperaturedegree Celsius°C Area square meterm² hectareha1 ha= m² square kilometerkm²1 km²=100 ha Volume millilitermL1000 mL=1 L cubic centimetercm³1 cm³=1 mL literL1000 L=1 m³ cubic meterm³ Speed, velocity meter per secondm/s kilometer per hourkm/h1 km/h=0.278 m/s Density kilogram per cubic meter kg/m³ ForcenewtonN Power wattW kilowattkW1 kW=1000 W Power kilojoulekJ megajouleMJ1 MJ=1000 kJ kilowatt hourkW·h1 kW·h=3.6 MJ Electric currentampereA

103 Commonly used S.I. prefixes

104 PrefixSymbolFactorNumericallyName gigaG billion** megaM million kilok thousand centic hundredth millim thousandth microμ millionth nanon billionth**

105 Practice questions: Convert: a. 5000m to km b. 100m to mm c. 10 litre to ml d. 10 degree celsius to K

106 Do Now: __________ is the process in which the size of a substance is reduced since it is being pressed on. __________ is the process in which the size of a substance is reduced since it is being pressed on. A ______ has fixed volume and shape and is hard to compress than a gas or a liquid. A ______ has fixed volume and shape and is hard to compress than a gas or a liquid. A ______ cannot be compressed to a great extent. It has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. It takes the shape of its container. _____ can be easily compressed. This means that a given quantity of gas will fit into a container of any size and shape. It does not have either a definite volume or a definite shape.

107 Do Now: Compression is the process in which the size of a substance is reduced since it is being pressed on. Compression is the process in which the size of a substance is reduced since it is being pressed on. A solid has fixed volume and shape and is hard to compress than a gas or a liquid. A solid has fixed volume and shape and is hard to compress than a gas or a liquid. A liquid cannot be compressed to a great extent. It has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. It takes the shape of its container. Gas can be easily compressed. This means that a given quantity of gas will fit into a container of any size and shape. It does not have either a definite volume or a definite shape.

108 S.I. units & Prefix exercise

109 Do Now: Water Cycle Sheet Water Cycle Sheet

110 S.I. units & Prefix exercise

111 Do Now: Solids, Liquids & Gases Sheet

112 How to draw a line graph? How To Construct a Line Graph On Paper StepWhat To DoHow To Do It 1Identify the variables a.Independent Variable - (controlled by the experimentor) Goes on the X axis (horizontal) b.Dependent Variable - (changes with the independent variable) Goes on the Y axis (vertical) 2 Determine the variable range. a.Subtract the lowest data value from the highest data value. b.Do each variable separately. 3 Determine the scale of the graph. a.Determine a scale, (the numerical value for each square), that best fits the range of each variable. b.Spread the graph to use MOST of the available space. 4 Number and label each axis. This tells what data the lines on your graph represent. 5Plot the data points. a.Plot each data value on the graph with a dot. b.You can put the data number by the dot, if it does not clutter graph. 6Draw the graph. a.Draw a curve or a line that best fits the data points. b.Most graphs of experimental data are not drawn as "connect-the-dots". 7Title the graph. a.Your title should clearly tell what the graph is about. b.If your graph has more than one set of data, provide a "key" to identify the different lines.

113 Solid GasLiquid _________________ Heating / cooling _________________ Heating / cooling ________________ Heating / cooling Do Now: Changes of state 1. Complete the diagram by writing the name of the change in each box : use one of these: evaporating, condensing, melting, freezing, subliming, reverse subliming 2. Cross out one of the words, cooling or heating, in each box to show what must be done to change the state.

114 Line Graph Sheet

115 Do Now: Solids, Liquids and Gases Sheet

116

117 States of matter- Summary

118 States of Matter- Poem

119 Check H.W. - Make a line graph Exercise

120 Experiment- Melting Ice to Water Time (minutes)Temperature (degree celsius)

121 Time vs. Temperature Graph

122 Do Now: Draw the triangle of changing states of matter.

123 The following sheets need to be completed: Solids, Liquids & Gases Sheet Solids, Liquids & Gases Sheet Hydrologic cycle Hydrologic cycle States of matter poem States of matter poem States of matter summary States of matter summary

124 Draw a line graph for the following data: Time (minutes)Temperature (degree celsius)

125 End of Topic Test Instructions: First 20 minutes for revision. 1. To be completed in 30 minutes 2. The answers to be written on the test paper. 3. The test could be cancelled if found helping in any way.

126 Do Now: Draw a line graph for the following data: Time (minutes)Temperature (degree celsius)

127 Video- The Atom

128 Water Cycle Poster

129


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