Solid Matter with a definite shape and volume Particles are close together and vibrate about a fixed position Solids do not take the shape of a container because the particles are packed in close together
Liquid Definite volume but no definite shape Takes the shape of the container because the particles in a liquid can move freely past each other
Gas Matter that does not have a definite shape or volume The particles in a gas are much further apart than those in a liquid and a solid Gas particles move at high speeds in all directions A gas will fill the entirety of a container because the particles will spread out as far as possible
Vapor Matter that exists in the gas state but is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature. Ex. water and water vapor
Energy Thermal Energy: The total kinetic and potential energy of all particles in a sample of matter Depends on the number of particles in a substance as well as the amount of energy each particle has
Temperature Temperature is defined as the average kinetic energy of the individual particles
Heat The movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature.
Changes of state Matter can change between the states of matter when different circumstances change http://www.brainpop.com/scien ce/matterandchemistry/matterc hangingstates/ http://www.brainpop.com/scien ce/matterandchemistry/matterc hangingstates/
Solid and Liquid Melting The change from a solid state to a liquid state The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid is called the melting point The melting point of water is zero degrees Celsius
Solid and Liquid Freezing The change from a liquid to a solid state As liquid cools, it loses thermal energy, the particles slow down, and come closer together Particles in a liquid have more kinetic energy than particles in a solid, therefore energy is released during freezing The temp at which a liquid becomes a solid is the freezing point
Liquid and Gas Vaporization Change from liquid to a gas Liquid water changes into water vapor at 100 degrees Celsius The substance absorbs energy during this process causing the particles to move faster and further apart
Vaporization Two forms of vaporization exist: Below the surface and at the surface Boiling: This is vaporization that takes places below the surface When a liquid boils, bubbles form and rise to the surface Boiling point of water is 100 degrees Celsius Evaporation: Vaporization that takes place at the surface
Liquid and Gas Condensation Gas condensing to a liquid As a gas cools, its particles slow down causing droplets of liquid to form (such as on a glass of ice water) The decrease in energy changes the arrangement of the particles Water vapor in the atmosphere condenses to form liquid water in the clouds, when the droplets become large enough, they can fall to the ground as rain
Solid and Gas Sublimation Surface particles of a solid gain enough energy to become a gas Dry ice is an example of sublimation Dry ice is the solid form of Carbon Dioxide, which does not exists as a liquid.