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American Education: Pre-Civil War Foundations: Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "American Education: Pre-Civil War Foundations: Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Education: Pre-Civil War Foundations: Chapter 4

2 Colonial Education * Curricula was based on interpretations of God’s preferences and the three R’s (reading, writing, and arithmetic) * The main reading books were the Old & New Testament of the Bible

3 ~ Hornbook - a transparent sheet of cow horn, served as a reader, a parchment with abc’s, vowels, syllables, and prayers ~ Primer - textbooks to teach rudimentary reading skills, abc’s, and prayers * reflected religious values of colonies Other important books in colonial education

4 ~ Poor Richard’s Almanac - textbook of philosophy of virtues: thrift hard work creativity Other important books in colonial education - Written by Benjamin Franklin ~Blue-Backed Speller - American Spelling Book - Written by Noah Webster

5 ~ An American Dictionary - Written by Noah Webster - showed distinct vocabulary, spelling, and usage of American words - used to help separate US from Britain Other important books in colonial education ~McGuffey Readers - taught literacy skills - advanced Protestant ethic - advanced patriotic nationalism

6 School Houses ~ were usually one-room log or clapboard cabins - with ages 3 to 20 or more together in one class ~ instruction was by whole group with choral response, repetition, drill, memorization, and punishment if needed.

7 Secondary Schools Latin Grammar School ~ Students were boys who entered at 9 or 10 and stayed 4 to 5 years ~ Subjects were Latin, Greek (& associated classics literature), math, geography, rhetoric - Step before attending college

8 English Academy ~ Founded by Ben Franklin - who believed students should acquire and apply practical knowledge to prepare for the world and gain a highly skilled occupation ~ Subjects: penmanship, math, bookkeeping, English, foreign languages (French, Spanish, Latin, Greek, German) ~ Skills taught: farming, carving, shipbuilding, carpentry, printing Secondary Schools

9 East Coast Colonies * Educated through a tutoring system with a schoolmaster - Schoolmaster was usually a member of the clergy and a prominent community figure * Purpose was to prepare young men for the ministry and leadership

10 Southern Colonies * Plantation landowner’s children were taught by a hired tutor - slaves and indentured servants were rarely educated * Education was formal: reading, writing, math - learning to read was important so one could read the Bible and follow God’s will * Children of small farmers were taught informally by the family

11 Middle Atlantic Colonies * Diverse population that wanted to preserve their language and beliefs * Established Parochial Schools - taught: religion, 3 Rs, some vocational training - believed children were inherently good - rejected corporal punishment - open to everyone, including: Native Americans and slaves

12 New England * Since many people shared similar values, they could establish: Town Schools - towns of 50 households had to employ a teacher of reading and writing - towns of 100 households had to provide a Grammar School ~ to prepare students for Harvard University

13 New England (cont.) * Purpose of schools: to be able to read and understand religious principles to thwart the Devil * Town Schools were developed in response to the Massachusetts Act of 1647, which is often referred to as the Old Deluder Satan Act

14 New England (cont.) * The Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin - he believed children were savage and primitive - and children needed training and discipline to conform to society - schools were to produce literate, hardworking, frugal and respectful people able to resist temptation

15 New Republic * National education leaders were: Noah Webster & Thomas Jefferson * Purpose of education was to prepare good citizens 1) know how to participate responsibly in a democracy 2) ability to read and write - makes for a strong people and nation * Webster promoted a common American language

16 * Jefferson established the Common School which was the first tax-supported school * Jefferson also proposed the establishment of Grammar Schools: to teach foreign language, grammar, advanced math - like a Prep School (College Prep) New Republic (Cont.)

17 Northwest Territories * Northwest Ordinance of 1785 - divided land into townships - each township had a section of land set aside for education ~ the schools on this land were called: land grant schools - because they were funded by the income the section brought in

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