Presentation on theme: "Historical Influences – Chpt. 12 ► Writers presume that today’s educational system, although not perfect, is better than it has ever been. ► This reflects."— Presentation transcript:
Historical Influences – Chpt. 12 ► Writers presume that today’s educational system, although not perfect, is better than it has ever been. ► This reflects many of the biases of the majority of Americans who are white and of European descent. ► Our schools derive many of their practices from Europe. Have we adequately responded to the needs of young people from ethnic and cultural minorities? (Native Americans, Hispanic, African, Asian)
European Beliefs ► U.S. practices evolved from European ideas that were developed over the centuries. ► Greeks – idea that knowledge could be divided into individual subject areas. ► Athenians – Wanted education for its adult citizens who could then more fully participate in democratic decision making. ► Reformation – Church leaders felt the bible held all wisdom, thus all should be taught to read so all Christians could have access to these truths.
► John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) Idea of organizing learning into sequential, graded schools. Idea of organizing learning into sequential, graded schools.. Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Idea that education could be used as an agent to improve society (radical idea) Teachers should be provided special training. Teachers should be provided special training.. Johann F. Herbart (1776-1841) Developed a standardized format for lesson planning. Developed a standardized format for lesson planning. By the end of the 1800s, mandatory public schooling had been adopted as public policy throughout much of the continent.
The New England Colonies: (COLONIAL PERIOD TO 1800) The New England Colonies: (COLONIAL PERIOD TO 1800) Saw the Church of England as the religious arm of the government. Puritans - Religion/Bible dominated Local Control of education, but no separation of church and state. 1642 – General court of Mass. Law Required that children attend school. First attempt to make education compulsory. Children in Illinois must attend school until age ??? 1647 Old Deluder Satan Act Required every town of 50 families to hire a teacher of reading or writing. Established public responsibility for education. Schools controlled by religious leaders Dame schools / Blab Schools Rote memorizations & Recitation
Middle Colonies (COLONIAL PERIOD TO 1800) ► Made of more diverse group of emigrants. Came from different parts of England than the Puritans. ► Quaker Schools taught to a diverse group of learners (Native Americans, African Americans and others) ► Franklin Academy offered students a choice in their course of study free of all religious ties (traditional subjects including navigation, math, surveying, bookkeeping). “Real world” classes ► Secondary level education had a place ► Precedents included practical (hands on) rather than intellectual course work, nonsectarian (public) schools, and much diversity offered in course work.
The Southern Colonies (COLONIAL PERIOD TO 1800) The Southern Colonies (COLONIAL PERIOD TO 1800) King Charles I was executed. Those loyal to him, mostly from Southwestern England, settled in the Southern Colonies along rivers. Difficult for a lot of the children to attend school because of few towns and great distances between landowners. Difficult for a lot of the children to attend school because of few towns and great distances between landowners. ► Education was left to the wealthy landowners (Traveling tutors) Many sent sons to England to be educated in English schools. ► Education for slaves was nonexistent – educating a slave could be a felony before the civil war.
FROM INDEPENDENCE TO THE CIVIL WAR FROM INDEPENDENCE TO THE CIVIL WAR Land Ordinance – 1785 – Northwest Ordinance: Thirty-six sections in a township – Section (block) no. 16 was the center of the township and designated as a site for a school. Few educational interventions were introduced. Unskilled workers were needed for growing industries including farming. Horace Mann, Mass. Legislator, believed in having taxpayers help finance public education. Wanted a public school for all. Education for women /Felt Women were better suited to teach the young / In 1839, first Normal School set up to prepare people for careers as teachers. ISU would later come from this idea.
CIVIL WAR TO 1900 ► Unparalleled industrial growth ► Technological innovations – need skilled workers – interest in vocational education. ► Huge numbers of immigrants enter – Schools eager to “Americanize? new students. ► Kalamazoo Case – ruled the state legislature had the right to levy taxes to support both elementary & secondary schools. ► Organizational activity among teachers increased.
1900 to World War II 1900 to World War II John Dewey: A philosopher – founded the laboratory school at the University of Chicago. Believed that for democracy to work, citizens had to be educated to understand and share in the duties and responsibilities of society. Believed learners needed to master the Scientific Problem Solving method Recognized individual differences among children The first junior high school established in Berkeley, Cal. In 1909. Developed a format of 6-3-3. Alfred Binet (France) developed an IQ test in 1905. U.S. used it. Cultural bias built into the test. Minorities today challenge the validity of the results of these paper & pencil IQ tests.
THE SEVEN CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION THE SEVEN CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION A SHIFT FROM A COLLEGE PREPARATORY HIGH SCHOOL TO A COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL (1918) School’s curriculum be organized around these principles. ► Health ► Command of Fundamental Processes ► Worthy Home Membership ► Citizenship ► Worthy Use of Leisure Time ► Ethical Character ► Vocational Preparation During this time, compulsory-attendance laws became common. Learners required to stay in school until age ??
World War II to the 21 st Century World War II to the 21 st Century 1958 – National Defense Education Act – Sputnik led to funding in science, math, foreign language (training & materials) Modifications fell well short of expectations. Few teachers participated; reading level of materials too difficult. Most teaching went on as usual. 1983 – Nation at Risk – science and math Japanese and German economies flourish – led to competency testing for teachers. Goals 2000 (Educate America Act) – States working together on curriculum – stepping toward national content standards. No Child Left Behind Act (2001) – All states must have curriculum standards, assess learner’s performance, and provide interventions.
Questions Unanswered? Questions Unanswered? How do we get & retain the best minds? How do we get & retain the best minds? Should principals be business managers or instructional leaders first? Should principals be business managers or instructional leaders first? Should we increase the school day, week, or year as other countries are doing? Should we increase the school day, week, or year as other countries are doing? Should we provide parents with more choices regarding how and where their children are educated? Should we provide parents with more choices regarding how and where their children are educated? Do we increase school – business partnerships? Do we increase school – business partnerships?