2 Europeans who influencd Early Education John Amos Comenius [ ] All children should be trained methodically by teachers using quality textbooks in schools supported by government and the clergy. Programs divided into four different grades: The Nursery School [birth to age six] Elementary or National school [ages 6-12] Latin school or Gymnasium [ages 13-18] Academy [Gifted ages 19—24]
3 COMENIUS [cont]A child’s mind should be “prepared” to receive instructionEducation would be “easy and pleasant” if begun EARLY, before a child’s mind was “corrupted.”Teachers should:present lessons at a reasonable paceuse age appropriate instructionkeep materials constantly before children’s eyesuse a single method of instruction at all times
4 ENLIGHTENED VIEWS LOCKE and ROUSSEAU JOHN LOCKE [ ] believed:The human mind at birth was a blank slate [tabula rasa] not a collection of preformed ideas placed there by God.Children:should interact with the environment by using their five senses to gather and test ideas.learned through imitation
5 JOHN LOCKE [cont] Teachers should: Tailor instruction to the individual child’s talents and interests.Encourage curiosityTreat children as “rational creatures”who might unlock life’s mysteriesTeach by example and suggestion, not by coercion
6 AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENTDefined as a period when reason was valued as a supreme virtue. Locke thought that people were inherently good, and that children taught by benevolent educators were bound to grow intellectually and prosper.
7 JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU [1712-1778] In his book, Emile, Rousseau described the development of a human being from infancy to maturity.Goal: to provide experiences that matched the natural conditions of a child’s growth by:Removing obstacles that might impede developmentAllowing the child to:learn by trial and errorexplore the environment with his sensesuse his hands (Emile learned carpentry)compare himself to othersthink about his place in the world
8 JOHANN HEINRICH PESTALOZZI [1746-1827] Children should not be treated like sheep should not be forced to study boring letters and numerals pass through a number of stages of development natural curiosity and playfulness should not be stifiled by educational conditions be exposed to experiences that appealed to all of the senses learn by head, hand and heart
9 FREDRICH FROEBEL [ ]Founder of the first kindergarten (1837) in Blankenberg, GermanyChildren:learn through the use of educational gamesand activities (gardening); play is an important part of learningare not “lumps of clay” to be moldedneed time and space to develop according to natural lawUse their senses, emotions, and reason that are necessary attributes for learningLearn only when they are ready to learnAre creative
10 EDUCATION IN THE SOUTHERN COLONIES Virginia, Maryland, Georgia and the CarolinasPeople lived on large plantations with rigid class distinctionsGrowers raised crops: tobacco, sugar, cottonA hired tutor taught the landowner’s childrenCurriculum: the 3 Rs; reading the BibleSlaves, servants and their children rarely received any type of education on the plantation; most could neither read or writeInformal education for small farmers’ children
11 EDUCATION IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC COLONIES New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, DelawareDiversity:Religious: (Catholics,Mennonites, Quakers, Lutherans, Calvanists, Presbyterians, Jews)Language: most spoke English; others spoke Dutch, German, French, SwedishParochial Schools: English, Irish, Welsh, Dutch, and German Quakers (open to everyone including Indians and slaves).Curriculum: religion, the 3 Rs, vocational training
12 NEW ENGLAND COLONIESMassachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and ConnecticutShared:Puritan valuescommon religious beliefsTeachings of John Calvin:God is omnipresent and goodHuman beings are evil and helpless, predestined for either salvation or eternal tormentEstablished: Town Schools (every town of fifty households had to employ a teacher of reading and writing; every town of 100 households had to provide a grammar school to prepare students for continuing study at Harvard University)Enacted: The Massachusetts Act of 1647 (Old Deluder Satan Act) to produce Scripture-literate citizens to thwart Satan’s trickery.
13 FACTORS AFFECTING EDUCATION BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR Institution of slavery, displacement of Native Americans status of womenEuropean philosophies and educational practicesPatterns of colonization and immigrationImportance of religionAmerican Independence and westward expansionImportance of nationalismIndustrialization and ImmigrationWealth and povertyCommon school movement and push for universal schooling
14 QUESTIONS HOW DID INDUSTRY AFFECT EDUCATION? HOW WERE SLAVES EDUCATED? WHO WAS DAVID WALKER?DESCRIBE EDUCATION FOR NATIVE AMERICANS.DESCRIBE EDUCATION IN SPANISH AMERICAN COLONIESHOW AND WHY HAS THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN EDUCATION CHANGED?WHY DO YOU THINK ATTITUDES TOWARD PEOPLE WITH DISABLILITIES CHANGED SO MUCH?
15 AIMS OF EDUCATION TO SAVE SOULS: RELIGION THE KING JAMES BIBLE FORMAL SCHOOLING PATTERNED AFTER ENGLISH SCHOOLSDAME SCHOOLS = Run by women; taught girls reading, writing and calculating.Private schoolsWealthy sent their children abroad
16 LIFE IN COLONIAL SCHOOLS Schoolmasters had to teach and do other jobsOne room schoolhouse with all agesWhole -group instruction, memorization, drill and repetition, choral responses, corporal punishment: “Spare the rod, spoil the child”Mid-1880s = change from teacher brutality due to graded schools and Pestalozzi: teaching students to behave rather than beating them into submission.
17 CURRICULA Old and New Testaments = God & the 3 Rs ABCs, Vowel sounds, one-syllable, longer words and sentencesWrote on chalk slates and used quill pens and copy books and other books from the familyHORNBOOKS, PRIMERS and ALMANACSGEOGRAPHIES, SPELLERS and DICTIONARIESMCGUFFEY READERS (1836)
18 TYPES OF FORMAL SCHOOLS Monitorial Method = older pupils taught younger pupilsLatin Grammar School (Boston,1635) BoysBenjamin Franklin’s English Language Academy in Philadelphia (1749)Thomas Jefferson drafted the Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge = Free public education via the COMMON SCHOOLS, tax-supported schools [3Rs & History] that children could attend free for 3 years and pay thereafter
19 THE MOVEMENT FOR UNIVERSAL EDUCATION HORACE MANN [ ], Revolutionized US education: the financial responsibility of the state; established the system of grade levels, age and performance; extended the school calendar from 3 to 10 months; standardized textbooks and made attendance manditory. Mann also established the first Normal School for training teachers (1839)HENRY BARNARD [ ] Led the struggle for the common school; English was the most important subject; promoted the public high school; teacher pay; common school: good enough for the best, cheap enough for the poorest family.
20 THE DEVELOPMENT OF PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS PROTESTANTGERMAN LUTHERANROMAN CATHOLICBAPTISTANGLICANCONGREGATIONALDUTCH REFORMEDPRESBYTERIANFRENCH REFORMEDQUAKERSMENNONITESHUGUENOTSANABAPTISTSJEWS