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Age of Revolutions. Overview In the late 1700s and early 1800s revolutions shook Europe and the Americas. Inspired by Enlightenment ideals Britain’s 13.

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Presentation on theme: "Age of Revolutions. Overview In the late 1700s and early 1800s revolutions shook Europe and the Americas. Inspired by Enlightenment ideals Britain’s 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Age of Revolutions

2 Overview In the late 1700s and early 1800s revolutions shook Europe and the Americas. Inspired by Enlightenment ideals Britain’s 13 colonies declared their independence in 1776, and fought the American revolution to throw off British rule.

3 Overview In France, economic misery and social discontent led to a revolt against the absolute monarchy in Periods of chaos and reform were followed by the rise of Napoleon. Napoleon’s empire was short-lived, but it inspired nationalism who spread the revolution’s ideals. Latin America also experienced revolutions that threw off Spanish rule.

4 The American Revolution By 1750 the British empire included 13 colonies along the eastern coast of North America. In 1776 the colonies declared their independence from Britain, and were given help by the French, Dutch, and Spanish to defeat the British troops. Inspired by Enlightenment ideals, the colonists established a new nation based on representative government and a guarantee of rights and freedoms.

5 Influence of British Traditions 1.Magna Carta and Parliament The Magna Carta limited the power of the English monarchs, and stated that kings could not tax the people without consulting Parliament. The American colonists interpreted this to mean that taxation without representation was unjust. Since colonists were heavily taxed but did not have a voice in Britain’s Parliament, the slogan of “No taxation without representation” arose among the colonists.

6 Influence of British Traditions 2. English Bill of Rights The English Bill of Rights inspired the colonists to fight for the creation of their own Bill of Rights.

7 Influence of the Enlightenment 1.Thomas Paine’s Common Sense Thomas Paine wrote in his pamphlet Common Sense that colonists should no longer be the subjects of a distant monarch. Pain appealed to reason and natural law in his arguments for breaking away from Britain, and his ideas were very popular in the colonies in 1776.

8 2. The Declaration of Independence Inspired by John Locke and other Enlightenment thinkers, Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence. Influence of the Enlightenment 1.Government rules by the consent of the governed. 2.Government should protect citizens’ rights. 3.People have a right to overthrow a bad government. Key points taken from the Enlightenment:

9 3. The Constitution The Constitution set up a government by social contract and begins with the words “We the people of the United States…” This idea was taken from Hobbes and Rousseau. Influence of the Enlightenment

10 3. The Constitution The Constitution also created a republic in which power was divided into three branches, to ensure checks and balances. This idea was taken from Montesquieu. Influence of the Enlightenment

11 Impact of the American Revolution The American republic stood as a symbol of freedom to both Europe and Latin America. The US Constitution created the most liberal government of its time, and would be copied my other countries. The success of the American Revolution would inspire other nations to throw off their absolute monarchs.

12 The French Revolution

13 Causes of the French Revolution Shortly after the American Revolution, the French decided to have a revolution of their own. There were many causes for the French Revolution, such as: 1.Absolute Monarchy – most people hated their monarch, Louis XVI, because they were denied basic rights and any say in government.

14 Causes of the French Revolution Shortly after the American Revolution, the French decided to have a revolution of their own. There were many causes for the French Revolution, such as: 2. Social Inequality – Since the Middle Ages there had been three classes, or Estates, in France. First Estate: the clergy Second Estate: the nobles Third Estate: middle class, poor city workers, and rural peasants (largest group).

15 Causes of the French Revolution Shortly after the American Revolution, the French decided to have a revolution of their own. There were many causes for the French Revolution, such as: 3. Economic Injustices – the government spent more money than it earned, and the tax burden was on the Third Estate. Bad harvests in 1789 caused food prices to rise and caused peasants to go hungry and start riots.

16 Causes of the French Revolution Shortly after the American Revolution, the French decided to have a revolution of their own. There were many causes for the French Revolution, such as: 4. The Enlightenment – the Enlightenment thinkers were especially critical of France’s absolute monarchy and called for democratic reforms. Most French people felt that it was unreasonable for the First and Second Estates to have such privilege.

17 Causes of the French Revolution Shortly after the American Revolution, the French decided to have a revolution of their own. There were many causes for the French Revolution, such as: 5. English and American Examples – the Glorious Revolution and the American Revolution proved to the French that existing absolutist authorities could be successfully challenged.

18 Stages of the Revolution The Revolution Begins As conditions grew worse in France, demands for reforms increased. In 1789 King Louis XVI finally called the Estates General, which were representatives of all three estates. After this, change came swiftly.

19 Stages of the Revolution The Revolution Begins As conditions grew worse in France, demands for reforms increased. In 1789 King Louis XVI finally called the Estates General, which were representatives of all three estates. After this, change came swiftly. 1. National Assembly – The Third Estate, the only elected group in the Estates General, declared itself the National Assembly and vowed to write a new constitution.

20 Stages of the Revolution The Revolution Begins As conditions grew worse in France, demands for reforms increased. In 1789 King Louis XVI finally called the Estates General, which were representatives of all three estates. After this, change came swiftly. 2. Seizure of the Bastille – Working class people stormed a prison called the Bastille on July 14, Fighting broke out in the city and countryside between peasants and nobles, in a time known as the Great Fear.

21 Stages of the Revolution The Revolution Begins As conditions grew worse in France, demands for reforms increased. In 1789 King Louis XVI finally called the Estates General, which were representatives of all three estates. After this, change came swiftly. 3. Declaration of the Rights of Man – The National Assembly abolished the privileges of the First and Second Estates and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, which contained many Enlightenment ideas.

22 A Limited Monarchy Stages of the Revolution By 1791 the Assembly had written a constitution which defined the role and purpose of a new government. Under the new constitution France: 1.Set up a limited monarchy and a representative assembly. 2.Declared that people had natural rights and that it was the job of the government to protect those rights. 3.Put the Church under state control. Many other European rulers and nobles feared revolutionary ideas would spread to their countries, so they threatened to intervene to save the French monarchy. To spread the revolution and end tyranny, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, Britain, and several other states.

23 Radicals in Power and the Reign of Terror Stages of the Revolution The war went badly for France. In 1792 radicals took control of the Assembly, ended the monarchy and declared France a republic. Their slogan was “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.” In 1793 the king was executed for treason.

24 Radicals in Power and the Reign of Terror Stages of the Revolution The execution of the king ushered in the Reign of Terror, which was led by Maximilien Robespierre, a radical revolutionary. During the Reign of Terror over 40,000 people were put to death, and thousands more were put in prison. Within a year the violence turned back on itself, and Robespierre himself was executed and the Reign of Terror ended.

25 Moderates Return Stages of the Revolution Beginning in 1795, a five-man “Directory” supported by a legislature held power in France. However, this government was weak and inefficient, which led to the rise of the ambitious military leader, Napoleon Bonaparte.

26 Napoleon in Power His Rise to Power When the revolution started Napoleon was a low level military officer with dreams of glory. He gained popularity for his victories against the British and Austrians. In 1799 Napoleon used his popularity to orchestrate a coup d’ etat, or revolt by military leaders to overthrow a government. Three years later he took the title of “Emperor of the French” and gained absolute power. Hoping for stability, the French supported Napoleon.

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28 Napoleon in Power Napoleon’s Achievements Napoleon was a very effective ruler in many aspects such as: 1. Economy – Napoleon controlled prices, supported new industry, and built roads and canals. 2. Education – Napoleon established a government - supervised public school system. 3. Napoleonic Code – Napoleon established a legal code that included many Enlightenment ideas, such as the legal equality of citizens and religious toleration.

29 Napoleon in Power Napoleon’s Empire From 1804 to 1814 Napoleon conquered much of Europe and ruled an empire. He often replaced the monarchs of defeated nations with his friends and relatives. Of the European powers, only Britain and Russia remained out of Napoleon’s reach. Britain was shielded from French troops by a powerful navy and the English Channel.

30 Napoleon in Power

31 Napoleon’s Fall Napoleon’s empire began to crumble for several reasons: 1. Nationalism - most people in conquered states looked upon Napoleon’s armies as foreign oppressors. Inspired by nationalism, people across Europe revolted against French rule.

32 Napoleon in Power Napoleon’s Fall Napoleon’s empire began to crumble for several reasons: 2. Failed Russian Invasion (1812) – As Napoleon’s armies invaded from the west, Russian armies retreated eastward and burned crops and villages to leave nothing behind for the ensuing French, which is called a “scorched earth” policy. French troops became hungry and cold, and most of Napoleon’s army was lost during the winter.

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35 Napoleon in Power Napoleon’s Fall A year after Napoleon’s loss in Russia, an alliance between Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia defeated Napoleon, forcing him to step down in Napoleon would return to power in 1815, but the British and Prussians decisively defeated him at the battle of Waterloo, which ended his reign, and he lived the rest of his life in exile.

36 Effects of the French Revolution The French Revolution and the reign of Napoleon transformed both France and Europe in many ways: 1. Democratic Ideals – Napoleon’s conquests spread the ideals of democracy across Europe. Groups strived to achieve the goals of the French republic: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.” People wanted liberty from monarchs, social equality, and fraternity, or brotherhood by working together for a common cause.

37 Effects of the French Revolution The French Revolution and the reign of Napoleon transformed both France and Europe in many ways: 2. Nationalism – Napoleon’s conquests inspired feelings of national pride among the French, as well as nationalistic feelings in those nations that were oppressed by Napoleon. His conquests had a part in the eventual unification of both Italy and Germany, and his weakening of Spain led to the Latin American independence movements.

38 Summary Enlightenment ideas about natural rights and rejection of absolutist authority inspired major revolutions in the late 1700s and early 1800s. Colonists in America declared independence from Britain in 1776 and created a government based on the ideas of Locke and Montesquieu. Influenced by the American Revolution, revolutionaries in France overturned the monarchy and created a new social order. Napoleon helped spread revolutionary ideals across Europe. Both the American and French Revolutions contributed to revolutions in Latin America in the early 1800s.


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