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Gifted and Talented – History: Causal Reasoning: A Model Lesson 1: Read story of Alphonse as hook. Identify and list causes of his death. Then follow ppt.

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Presentation on theme: "Gifted and Talented – History: Causal Reasoning: A Model Lesson 1: Read story of Alphonse as hook. Identify and list causes of his death. Then follow ppt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gifted and Talented – History: Causal Reasoning: A Model Lesson 1: Read story of Alphonse as hook. Identify and list causes of his death. Then follow ppt from slide 2… Lesson 2: follow ppt Worksheets: Print outs of slides 3,5,6; 13,14,15 Cards: small copies of slides 18-26

2 Was it really the straw that broke the camels back?! One reason why Alphonse died was… Another reason why Alphonse died was… The 23 rd cause of Alphonses death was… The next reason on my randomly ordered list of reasons is…

3 A good explanation needs to do more than just list causes. We need to show how some events affected other events, and show how important different events were. We also need to consider whether different events are different types of causes. So, have another look at the list of causes of Alphonses death. What ROLE did each factor play in causing Alphonses death? Pick out at least one or two causes for each group: 1. Starting things off. What are the early causes of Alphonses death, which had to happen otherwise he would never have died? Which factors created a situation which meant that Alphonse could go on to die? 2. Speeding things up. Which causes meant Alphonse died sooner than he might otherwise have done? 3. Making things bigger. Which factors made Alphonses problems worse? Was it really the straw that broke the camels back?!

4 We can do much better than that! Read the words on the blue cards and decide what they really mean. Put them into the following groups: Words which are about: 1.Starting things off. Which words can be used describe things which have created a situation where other things can then happen? Which words are useful for explaining how some things have created circumstances which make other things more likely? 2.Speeding things up. Which words are useful for explaining when things happened? Which words help you to explain why something happened sooner, not later. 3.Making things bigger. Which words can be used to explain how things have been made worse? Which words help to explain how problems have got bigger? Was it really the straw that broke the camels back?!

5 Draw a diagram which explains how he died. e.g.: Label the diagram using words from the list to explain why he died. THINK: What role each of the reasons play? Which words are most useful for explaining this? How could you show and explain when things happened? How could you show and explain how important each reason was? How could you show and explain how some events affected or influenced other events?

6 Was it really the straw that broke the camels back?! Which of these theories do you agree with? Which do you disagree with? How could we improve some of them? Have I always used the RIGHT word? 1.The straw triggered Alphonses death. 2.The straw was an underlying cause of Alphonses death. 3.It was Alphonses back problem which sparked his death. 4.Driving everything which happened to Alphonse was Franks bitterness towards camels. 5.The actions of the other camel owners provoked Frank into killing Alphonse. 6.Alphonses own actions accelerated his death. 7.Alphonses death stems from the moment the other camel kicked Frank. From then, Alphonses death was inevitable. 8.The other camels failure to stand up for each other exacerbated the problem. 9.The personality of camels motivated Alphonses death.

7 Was it really the straw that broke the camels back?! Why have we done this? Whats the point? Whats the connection with this question? Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths?

8 LESSON 2

9 This lesson is dedicated to the memory of Alphonse the Camel, who died so we may learn how to explain things really well. Let his death not be in vain. Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths?

10 Was it really the straw that broke the camels back?! Draw a diagram which explains how he died. e.g.: Label the diagram using words from the list to explain why he died. THINK: What role each of the reasons play? Which words are most useful for explaining this? How could you show and explain when things happened? How could you show and explain how important each reason was? How could you show and explain how some events affected or influenced other events?

11 Each of you has a set of cards. There are 3 types of cards: (a)causes of WWI (e.g. assassination of Franz Ferdinand) (b)words which can be used to explain how something caused WWI (e.g. trigger) (c)pictures which represent how something can be caused (e.g. A gun firing) Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths? You need to put the cards into an order or pattern to explain how the events together caused WWI. How you arrange the cards is up to you. THINK: Remember the diagram you drew to explain Alphonses death. Think about how you showed the role of each cause. Is this the right word to describe how this event caused WWI? Does the picture really help to show how this event caused WWI?

12 Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths? Go back to your diagram about Alphonses death. What do you need to change / add / replace to turn this into a diagram which explains who and why WWI began? Labels will need to change. Also, do you need new / different links? Etc? THINK: What role each of the reasons play? Which words are most useful for explaining this? How could you show and explain when things happened? How could you show and explain how important each reason was? How could you show and explain how some events affected or influenced other events?

13 Heres my answer to the essay youve written. Whats wrong with it? Is there anything which is OK? How could it be better? MY ESSAY! by Mr Woodcock, 11N Princip shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Then Austria declared war on Serbia. Then Russia warned Austria to back-off. Then Germany warned Russia to back off. Then Germany invaded Belgium and France. Then Britain declared war on Germany. Also, Austria-Hungary was a very proud country. They wanted to keep control of their Empire. Before this, Germany had wanted to build up a large army and navy. Wilhelm wanted Germany to be the greatest country on earth. Alliances is another big cause of World War One. Alliances means countries teaming up to fight each others enemies. Alliances is the most important reason why there was a First World War. The END! Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths?

14 After doing the Alphonse lesson, I tried to improve my essay. I thought putting in lots of fancy words would help. I have underlined the parts I think I have improved. Is it any better? Whats now wrong with it? MY ESSAY! by Mr Woodcock, 11N Princip shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand. This was an underlying reason why Austria declared war on Serbia. This contributed to Russia warning Austria to back-off. Russias threat against Austria encouraged Germany to warn Russia to back off. This triggered Germanys invasion of Belgium and France. Despite this, Britain declared war on Germany. This exacerbated Austria-Hungarys pride in its empire. They wanted to keep control of their Empire. This prompted Germany to build up a large army and navy. Wilhelm wanted Germany to be the greatest country on earth. Alliances were the spark that caused World War One. Alliances means countries teaming up to fight each others enemies. Alliances is the root cause why there was a First World War. The END! Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths?

15 I have underlined the parts of my answer which I think need improving. Think about what you learned from the Alphonse lesson. Can you use the right words to improve this answer, to show how things are connected, and how important they were in causing World War One? Write your improvements on the sheet. Princip shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Then Austria declared war on Serbia. Then Russia warned Austria to back-off. Then Germany warned Russia to back off. Then Germany invaded Belgium and France. Then Britain declared war on Germany. Also, Austria-Hungary was a very proud country. They wanted to keep control of their Empire. Before this, Germany had wanted to build up a large army and navy. Wilhelm wanted Germany to be the greatest country on earth. Alliances is another big cause of World War One. Alliances means countries teaming up to fight each others enemies. Alliances is the most important reason why there was a First World War. Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths?

16 Now look at your own work. Where did you use words and phrases really well? What improvements could you make? (a) Pick out words and phrases like the Alphonse language which you used to show connections and how important things were. In the margin, write down why you used this word: what were you trying to say about when that event happened, how it was connected to other events, etc.? e.g. You might have said something triggered something to show that this immediately caused something else – write that in the margin. Or, you might have used underlying to describe a cause, to show that it was important and had been around for long time – write that in the margin. (b) Now think – was that the best word? Is it quite the right word to use there? If you think you could improve that sentence, write your improved version at the end of your essay. (c) Now, have a look to see where you could have used some of the Alphonse language, but didnt. Look for words like also, then, another, next, before, after. Try to change those sentences by using the Alphonse language, so that they better explain how things happened and why they happened. (d) Now, swap work with your neighbour and read their essay. Can you help them improve their sentences? Have they missed anything? Do you agree with their choice of words? Ask them what they were trying to say. Have they used some phrases which you really like? Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths?

17 Why do you think we are learning how to use words and phrases like this? Pick an answer, combine some, improve them or come up with your own. (1)The Alphonse words makes me sound clever: long words look good and sound flash. (2)Using the Alphonse words means I can get better at describing what happened in the past. (3)The more long words I use, the more marks Ill get. It doesnt really matter which words I use. (4)The Alphonse words will help me to get better at English, which is a really important subject. (5)Using the Alphonse words helps me to think about things in more complicated ways: the words give me new ideas. These ideas help me to make sense of how and why things have happened. (6)Using the Alphonse words means I can get better at explaining why things happened in the past. (7)Using long words makes me cleverer. (8)Using long words will confuse Mr Woodcock. He is too stupid to understand them. Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths?

18 Why do you think we are learning how to use words and phrases like this? Pick an answer, combine some, improve them or come up with your own. (1)The Alphonse words makes me sound clever: long words look good and sound flash. (2)Using the Alphonse words means I can get better at describing what happened in the past. (3)The more long words I use, the more marks Ill get. It doesnt really matter which words I use. (4)The Alphonse words will help me to get better at English, which is a really important subject. (5)Using the Alphonse words helps me to think about things in more complicated ways: the words give me new ideas. These ideas help me to make sense of how and why things have happened. (6)Using the Alphonse words means I can get better at explaining why things happened in the past. (7)Using long words makes me cleverer. (8)Using long words will confuse Mr Woodcock. He is too stupid to understand them. Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths?

19 What do the words help you to do which is better than just saying: THEN…THEN…THEN…THEN…NEXT…ANOTHER REASON WAS…? Who or what was to blame for the First World War? Did 2 bullets lead to 20 million deaths?

20 Cards to follow…

21 …triggered…

22 …then…

23 …sparked…

24 …underlay…

25 …after…

26 …exacerbated…

27 …contributed…

28 …next…

29 …motivated…

30 …provoked…

31 …before…

32 …encouraged…

33 …prompted…

34 …accelerated…

35 …broadened…

36 …multiplied…

37 the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

38 Austria- Hungarys attack on Serbia

39 Germanys invasion of Belgium and France

40 Kaiser Wilhelms jealousy of Britains navy and empire

41 the system of alliances between different countries

42 Britains declaration of war on Germany

43 competition between different countries, who were all proud nationalists

44 Russias threat of war against Austria- Hungary

45 Austria- Hungarys control of Bosnia

46 national pride felt by Bosnians, who wanted to be part of Serbia

47 British fears of invasion by Germany

48 Britains building of new battleships

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