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U.S. History Top 100. Goal 1 New Nation George Washington Precedents “Farewell Address” – Serving Two Terms Warnings for Country – Avoid entangling foreign.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Top 100. Goal 1 New Nation George Washington Precedents “Farewell Address” – Serving Two Terms Warnings for Country – Avoid entangling foreign."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History Top 100

2 Goal 1 New Nation

3 George Washington Precedents “Farewell Address” – Serving Two Terms Warnings for Country – Avoid entangling foreign alliances – Avoid political parties Whiskey Rebellion-Proof that a stronger federal gov’t had been established!! Jay’s Treaty-Allows access to Mississippi River

4 Two-Party System Hamilton & Federalist Strong Central Gov. National Bank “Loose Interpretation” of Constitution Jefferson & Democratic- Republicans State Power State debt State Banks “Strict Interpretation” of Constitution

5 Hamilton’s Economic Plan Set up a sound financial plan to deal with nations debt – Create National Bank – Gain Revenue Excise tax Tariffs – Nation assume states debts Proposed to move capital to South (Washington, D.C.) to help plan pass

6 John Adams XYZ Affair: French diplomats required payment to talk with US diplomats (Alien) and (Sedition) Act – limit freedom of (speech) – Specifically designed to limit the political participation of recent (immigrants) in the late 1790s, hurt Dem. Rep. party Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions – “Doctrine of Nullification” states refuse to follow unconstitutional federal law Marbury v Madison – Midnight Judges- Adams appoints Federalist Judges the last night of his presidency – “Judicial Review” Supreme Court can rule a law unconstitutional

7 Thomas Jefferson “Political Revolution”-political party transfer first time in history Suffrage-Property ownership requirement in voting Louisiana Purchase – Challenged his “strict interpretation” philosophy, did not have power to purchase – Lewis and Clark Expedition Embargo Act of 1807-prevent war with Britain, “Economic disaster” hurt U.S. Economy

8 James Madison War of 1812 – Causes- “War Hawks” wanted Canada, Impressment (kidnapping) of U.S. Soldiers into British Navy Treaty of Ghent-ends war of 1812 Treaty of Greenville-Treaty to move Indians out of Ohio Territory

9 The early political party that favored strong state governments, looked to Thomas Jefferson as its leader, opposed Hamilton’s plan and favored the interests of farmers over big business was which of the following? A.The Federalists B.The Democrats C.The Democratic-Republicans D.The War Hawks

10 During George Washington’s presidency, what was the major reason for conflict between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton? A.Washington’s decision not to seek a third term B.The distribution of power between the judicial branch and the legislative branch C.The US government’s decision to remain neutral in the war between France and Britain D.Hamilton’s objection to Jefferson’s strict interpretation of the Constitution

11 Which answer best expresses the significance of the Whiskey Rebellion? A.It protested excise taxes B.It let people express their grievances C.It showed that rebellion would not work D.It forced the federal government to assert its authority over the states

12 Which of the following was a precedent set by George Washington? A.Serving only two terms B.Having a vice-president C.Living in the White House D.Choosing the members of Congress

13 In which landmark decision did the Supreme Court first assert the power of judicial review? A.Marbury v. Madison B.Worcester v. Georgia C.McCulloch v. Maryland D.Gibbons v. Ogden

14 The Sedition Act made it a crime for US citizens to do which of the following? A.Openly support the French Revolution B.Trade with Native Americans in the Ohio territory C.Publicly discredit the Federal Government D.Fight for any country other than the United States

15 In an attempt to avoid war with the British in the early 1800s, what did President Jefferson persuade congress to do? A.Declare a trade embargo between the United States and Britain B.Surrender disputed territory in the Great Lakes region to Britain C.Apologize for US raids across the Canadian border D.Lower tariffs for all British goods entering the United States

16 One of the factors that led to the War of 1812 was impressments. What was impressment? a. The refusal of the French to return runaway slaves who had escaped to Canada b. The French seizure of smugglers who had crossed into Canada c. The British seizure of American sailors from US ships for service in the British Royal navy d. The British act of drafting Native Americans along the US border into the British army

17 How are the initial suffrage requirements of the young United States best summarized? A.Only males could vote B.Only white males could vote C.Only white males owning property could vote D.Only Northern white males owning property could vote

18 How did the US respond to the “XYZ Affair,” and how did it affect relations between the US and France? A.With outrage/it ended relations between the two nations for a time B.With pleasure/it began a new era in positive US- French relations C.Irritated/the US went into debt paying money to France D.With disappointment/it meant that France and Great Britain would be allies against the US

19 Why did President Jefferson have to compromise his political philosophy to buy the Louisiana Purchase? A.He felt the territory would be too large to govern democratically B.He did not feel a strict interpretation of the Constitution gave him to power to acquire territories C.He felt some of the states would want to enlarge their size at the expense of other states, causing domestic friction D.He worried that Spain would use arms to try to take back territory that Spain once possessed

20 Which of the following overturned the Alien and Sedition Acts? A.The Kansas-Nebraska Act B.The Missouri Compromise C.The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions D.The Tariff of Abominations

21 Goal 2 Nationalism and Sectionalism

22 Sectionalism Sectionalism: division b/w North and South, growing cause of Civil War Points of Tension: – slavery, – agrarian economy vs. industrial economy, – state rights vs. power of the federal gov’t Industrial Revolution: creates differences b/w north and south Two Major Issues by mid-1800s: slavery and state rights

23 Nationalism “Universal Male Suffrage”, landless farmers obtained suffrage (right to vote) Chief Justice Marshall: empowered national government through decisions – Marbury v. Madison Gibbons v. Ogden, & McCulloch v. Maryland: all 3 secured the power to Federal gov’t Adams-Onis Treaty: gained Spanish Florida and claims to Oregon Monroe Doctrine: warned European Powers that the US considered the Western Hemisphere within its sphere of influence

24 Hudson River School for the Arts focused on American scenic beauty as being superior than that of Europe Washington Irving, Edgar Allen Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and James Fennimore Cooper: writers created distinct American literature US painters offered affordable portraits of US landscapes to the public Webster’s Dictionary (1806) English to American language

25 Missouri Compromise 1820 attempts to solve slavery issue in W. Territories Slavery prohibited north of the 36, 30 parallel in the Louisiana Purchase Territory Maine admitted as a free state and Missouri a slave state

26 Henry Clay “Great Compromiser” American System-unify the country – Transportation System-Erie Canal, National Road – Protective Tariff – National Road – Bank of U.S.

27 Andrew Jackson Indian Removal Act 1830 – Worchester v. Georgia: sided with Cherokee but Jackson said, “Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.” disliked Bank of U.S. – Created “pet banks” that printed excess money, caused Panic of 1837 Tariff of Abomination (1828 and 1832)-angered south – South Carolina Nullification Crisis –S.C. refused to pay duties (tariff) – President Jackson threatened to send federal troops to end the crisis Spoils System loyal supporter given gov’t job as a reward

28 Reforms Women’s rights – Seneca Falls Convention- “Declaration of Sentiments” declaring women equal – Stanton, Susan B. Anthony Abolition-end slavery Transcendentalism – Civil Disobedience focus on nature – Emerson and Thoreau – Sparks religious debate on slavery-Southern Women join abolitionist movement

29 Mexican American War Causes – Texas Annexed – Polk favors expansion of U.S. Called “Manifest Destiny” Outcome – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Increased sectionalism over expansion of slavery – Territorial debates in congress over expansion of slavery into new territories – Gadsden Purchase- land purchase from Mexico, final piece of lower states

30 What did the Hudson River artists paint? A.People B.Landscapes C.Buildings D.Fruit

31 Which reform movement was Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott most involved in? A.Abolition B.Education C.Women’s suffrage D.Religious

32 What was the Declaration of Sentiments? A.A declaration of women’s rights calling for equality for women B.A declaration of slaveholders’ rights passed by southern states C.A declaration by Nat Turner calling for an end to slavery D.A declaration calling for Americans to tolerate all religions

33 A.The Missouri Compromise of 1820 provided for which of the following? A.Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state and Kansas as a free state B.Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state C.Missouri would enter the Union as a free state and no other states would be added to the Union D.Missouri would enter the Union as a free state and Louisiana would be added in the future

34 Manifest Destiny became a rallying cry for Americans who believed that it was God’s plan for America to do which of the following? A.Adopt Protestantism as its official religion B.Abolish slavery in all states C.Convert all Native Americans to Christianity D.Extend the nation from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

35 What did Andrew Jackson threaten to do if South Carolina did not pay the tariff? A.Take away South Carolina’s banks B.Force South Carolina to pay the tariff through the military C.Make South Carolina leave the union D.Give South Carolina $

36 Which of the following groups disliked Andrew Jackson’s Indian policy? A.Southern plantation owners B.Western settlers C.Georgia state representatives D.Supreme court justices

37 Which statement describes the United States Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall? A.Refused to hear cases involving the right of the states to secede from the Union B.Made decisions which established the supremacy of the federal government over the state government C.Broadened the Supreme Court’s interpretation of individual liberties D.Declared the Compromise of 1950 unconstitutional

38 Who was most known for solving political problems? A.Henry Clay B.Andrew Jackson C.Thomas Jefferson D.John Quincy Adams

39 Why was the invention of the cotton gin important? A.It decreased the need for slave labor in the South B.It increased the need for slave labor in the South C.It allowed slaves to take frequent breaks throughout the day D.It caused the Industrial Revolution to fail

40 Author’s Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, principal figures in the transcendental movement, shared which of the following beliefs? A.The way to end slavery was to abolish the slave trade B.Educational reform was more important than prison reform C.The government must lead in reforming society D.The individual needed to preserve ties to nature

41 What was the impact of westward expansion on American Indians during the Jacksonian era? A.Most American Indians were forced to move to CanadaMost American Indians were forced to move to Canada B.Most American Indians were assimilated into U. S. society.Most American Indians were assimilated into U. S. society. C.Most American Indians were relocated to lands west of the Mississippi River.Most American Indians were relocated to lands west of the Mississippi River. D.Most American Indians were able to negotiate to keep their land.Most American Indians were able to negotiate to keep their land.

42 Which statement best explains the increase in sectionalism between 1820 and 1850? A.Westward expansion created a heated debate over the nation's policy concerning American Indians.Westward expansion created a heated debate over the nation's policy concerning American Indians. B.Westward expansion caused a recurring debate over the expansion of slavery into the new territories.Westward expansion caused a recurring debate over the expansion of slavery into the new territories. C.Westward expansion during the period occurred faster across the northern plains than the southern river deltas.Westward expansion during the period occurred faster across the northern plains than the southern river deltas. D.Westward expansion created a need for government spending to improve transportation.Westward expansion created a need for government spending to improve transportation.

43 In the period, which section of the United States most opposed a protective tariff? A.WestWest B.NortheastNortheast C.SouthSouth D.NorthwestNorthwest

44 Goal 3 Goal 3 United States History Crisis, Civil War, and Reconstruction Sectionalism and Division

45 Compromise of 1850 “States Rights” California admitted as a free state, Popular Sovereignty –people decide slavery in Utah and New Mexico Territories Slave Trade abolished in Washington D.C. Fugitive Slave Law: enabled slaveholders to recapture slaves who had fled,

46 Dred Scott V. Sanford slaves were not citizens and had no right to sue in the U.S. courts Supreme Court Decision said that Congress had no power to deny slavery in the territories—Declared Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional

47 Bleeding Kansas Kansas-Nebraska Act -popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska pro-slavery and anti-slavery radicals clashed over the issue lead so blood shed

48 Abolition End Slavery Harpers Ferry-John Brown, Harpers Ferry, Virginia: he hoped to stole federal weapons to lead revolt – John Brown hanged Free-Soil Party-opposed extension of slavery

49 Political Parties Know-Nothings opposed immigration, Nativist-support people born in US Democrat Party split over slavery Republicans: new party, against slavery for territories and new states, formed from Whigs, Free-Soilers, and Northern Democrats

50 Lincoln v. Douglas debates Freeport Doctrine- Douglas’s argument for Popular Sovereignty Lincoln gained a reputation as a strong Republican candidate for the Presidency in 1860 Election

51 1860 Election Lincoln Elected Southern states seceded-feared abolition and threat to popular sovereignty Lincoln argued that secession was illegal a state ratified the constitution they surrendered their power to the federal gov’t

52 Civil War Gettysburg-Turning Point in Civil War – “Gettysburg Address” Lincoln’s purpose of the war preserve the Union. Effects – confirmed power of National Gov’t and made by making succession illegal – Precedence Presidents cite “national security” as reason to expand power of Executive Branch – Income tax used to pay for war

53 Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln freed slaves in the Confederate States Paved the way for the 13 th Amendment: abolished slavery

54 Reconstruction Civil War Amendments 13 th Abolished Slavery 14 th Citizenship and due process to African Americans 15 th Suffrage rights to African Americans Civil Right Act of 1866 passed to stop black codes Johnson Impeached!! Compromise of 1877-Ended Reconstruction Hayes Elected Democrats came to power republicans conceded to Democrats demands KKK founded

55 “Jim Crow” Restricted rights of newly freed slaves – Poll Tax – Grandfather Clause – Literacy Test

56 Goal 4 “Westward Expansion”

57 Settlement Wagons West—for furs, for gold, for farms: economic motivation Gold Rush: 49ers Mormons and Utah—seek religious freedom Joseph Smith and Brigham Young migrated to Salt Lake City, Utah

58 Transcontinental Railroad (built by Chinese and Irish immigrants) had the greatest impact on successful settlement of the Great Plains Railroad killed off the Buffalo…ending the Native American way of life

59 Homestead Act Homestead Act: strongly supported by Ranchers and Farmers Gave 160 acres of land which had to be lived on for 5 years

60 Indian Wars Battles: Sand Creek Massacre, Little Big Horn, Wounded Knee-ends Indian Wars Dawes Severalty Act: Assimilate American Indians by turning them into farmers Inspired to help by the book “A Century of Dishonor,” by Helen Jackson, explains broken promises of the federal government

61 The Plains Farming innovations: windmill, steel plow McCormick, Eli Whitney, John Deere, and Joseph Gilden all dealt with agriculture The Long Drive: cowboys moving cattle north to the railroads on the Open Range Refrigerated railroad cars benefited the cattle industry economically End of Open Range: Barbed Wire

62 Populism The Grange: farmer organization against railroads and part of Populism late 1800s Populist Party: formed by farmers in 1891 called for gov’t regulation of RR Reforms: bimetallism, a graduated income tax, federal loan program, election of US senators by popular vote (17 th Amendment) single terms for presidents, secret ballot to end voter fraud, 8hr work day, restrict immigration

63 Goal 5 Industrialization and Immigration

64 Big Business Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Carnegie, J.P. Morgan Business Tactics – Monopoly- Eliminates Competition Horizontal Integration-buy out competition Vertical Integration-buy out suppliers Captains of Industry vs. Robber Barons Philosophies-Social Darwinism…survival of fittest…Laissez-Faire…little gov. intervention

65 Nativism Favor Native born citizens Chinese Exclusionary Act-limits immigration Immigrants moved into Urban areas for Factory jobs

66 Railroad Built by Chinese and Irish immigrants Credit-Mobilier-members of Congress given profits from construction of RR Munn V. Illinois-states won right to regulate railroads, Fed. Gov now regulates private industry Interstate Commerce Act-right of Fed gov. to supervise RR activities

67 Haymarket Square Incident, Pullman Strike, Great Strike of 1877 Strikes: become violent, gov’t sides with employers (Effect of Haymarket Square)the public came to associate labor unions with violence and anarchist activity Gov. uses law to stop strikes, interferes with commerce

68 Political Machines corrupt gov’t institutions where gov’t is bought and paid for with bribes and favors - graft Tammany Hall—Political Machine in NY City and Boss Tweed was the famous leader; “Tweed Ring” – Exposed by Thomas Nast-Cartoonis Spoils System, bribes, & graft helped support Political Machines Supported by poor and immigrant

69 Goal 6 Imperialism

70 Causes – Quest for raw materials, new markets – “White Man’s Burden” cultural superiority – Military strength-Alfred Mahan

71 Alaska Purchases “Seward’s Folly” Americans thought it was a worthless purchase Found to have natural resources

72 Spanish American War Causes – Yellow Journalism-sensationalized stories – “Remember the MAINE” – American investment in Cuba Outcome – Treaty of Paris U.S. gains Guam, Puerto Rico, and Phillippines

73 Open Door Policy China Open Door Notes-John Hay-policy of imperialist nations sharing trading rights with the U.S.

74 Theodore Roosevelt Intervention in Caribbean to protect American investment – Panama Canal-allow America to maintain presence in Caribbean – Roosevelt Corollary-addition to Monroe Doctrine U.S. use “force” to exercise international police power in the West.

75 Dollar Diplomacy William Taft U.S. guarantee loans to foreign countries by American businesspeople Latin America

76 Missionary Diplomacy Woodrow Wilson U.S. has moral responsibility to not recognize oppressive hostile nations in Latin America First Test Mexican Revolution – Mexican Rebel Pancho Villa carried out raids, killing Americans in Mexico – He was never captured…U.S. troops ordered out by Mex. Gov.

77 Goal 7 Progressive Era

78 Progressive Movement Causes – Poor Working Conditions Ex. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire – Corrupt gov. Goals – Moral Improvement – Social Improvement – Political improvement

79 Muckrakers Writings exposed political corruption, unfair business practices, poor living and working conditions – Upton Sinclair-The Jungle – Ida Tarbell-Standard Oil Company – Jacob Riis-How the Other Half lives – Robert Lafollette-U.S. Senator opposed to Corporate power

80 Reforms Women’s Rights Movement – women’s suffrage – right to vote – Leaders: Stanton, Mott, and Susan B. Anthony Temperance Movement: Alcohol Prohibition Social Gospel Movement: church should help the poor – Hull House: helped poor immigrants

81 Legislation Pure Food and Drug Act—gov’t inspection of food Sherman Anti-trust Act: control & prevent the formation of monopolies Increase voter participation – Referendum – voters approve laws/ – Initiative – voters start laws – Direct Primary: voters choose candidates for political parties – 17 th Amendment – Senators directly elected by people, – Recall: remove official by vote of people Public Utilities: owned by city and run by city council not state legislatures 18 th Amendment– Prohibition: alcohol is illegal 19 th Amendment – Women’s suffrage: right to vote Federal Reserve System-Americas banking system,

82 Theodore Roosevelt Expands role of the federal government in the US economy Trustbuster: enforced the Sherman Anti-trust Act Conservation

83 Jim Crow “Segregation” Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “separate but equal” Great Migration –African Americans move North WEB Dubois vs. Booker T. Washington WEB Dubois -Immediate End to Segregation Booker T. Washington: Gradual acceptance and equality

84 Goal 8 World War I

85 Causes of WWI Nationalism: extreme pride in one’s country: Germany, Serbia, Austria-Hungary Imperialism: Germany seeks land but Africa & rest of World mostly taken already Alliance System: Entente and Central = two original alliance Arch Duke Ferdinand Assassinated – sparks WWI

86 U.S. and WWI Isolationism – U.S. policy of neutrality during the beginning of the war U.S. forced into war-Unrestricted Submarine warfare by Germans Lusitania: British ship sunk by Germany 1915, 128 Americans died Zimmerman Note: Germany asks Mexico to attack US Wilson’s Speech: “Make the world safe for Democracy”

87 National Security Propaganda: used by US gov’t to gain public support for the war Selective Service Act draft passed by Congress Sedition Acts: restricted 1 st Amendment rights Espionage and Sedition Acts affected freedom of speech & civil liberties Schenck vs. US (1919) “Clear and Present Danger”; – National Security over Individual Rights

88 Results of WWI Wilson’s 14 Points – President Wilson’s plan for World Peace after WWI League of Nations Created – Senator Henry Cabot Lodge: opposed – U.S. never joins

89 Treaty of Versailles Germany punished – Pay war reparations – “War Guilt Clause” – Divided up into 9 new territories

90 Red Scare fear of Communism from the Bolshevik revolution in Soviet Union Targets: Sacco and Vanzetti, aliens, and labor Unions The Justice Department authorized the Palmer Raids as result of the increasing US fear of Communism after World War I

91 Goal 9 20s and 30’s

92 Prosperity Installment Plan=“easy credit” Mass production-assembly line – Ford Farmers, immigrants, and many AA did not benefit

93 Prohibition 18 th Amendment “Legislating Morality” –Gov. finds it difficult to pass laws that deal with moral issues Led to rise in crime Repealed by 21 st amendment

94 Scopes Trial Monkey Trial Evolution and the role of science and religion in public schools

95 Great Depression Causes Overextension of Credit Over production Buying on the Margin (stocks) – “Black Tuesday” marks beginning Effects Farmers hurt most – “Dust Bowl” caused by severe drought and overproduction of crops Failed Banks High Unemployment

96 New Deal President Roosevelt Provide – Relief-jobs (CCC, TVA, CWA, NYA) – Recovery – Reform-(SEC, FDIC, SSA) Lasting Impact Fundamental Principle: Government takes responsibility of economic welfare of citizens

97 Goal 10 World War II

98 Causes of WWII Totalitarian Dictatorships Violations of Treaty of Versailles – Weakness of League of Nations Appeasement – Giving into aggressive nations

99 America and WWII Beginning was Neutrality – Neutrality Acts – Lend-Lease Act-provide supplies to GB, and Soviet Union Bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japanese Dec. 7, 1941 – America mobilizes for war – D-Day-Amphibious assault to liberate France,

100 War at Home Minorities and women contribute to war effort War Production Board-government takes control of resources to control production and prices Japanese Internment Camps – Korematsu V. U.S.-National Security made internment constitutional

101 Effects of World War II Yalta Conference- – Divide Germany into 4 zones controlled by Allies United Nations Created Potsdam Conference – Truman’s Goal was to create a new world order in which nations had the right of self-determination. Nuclear War becomes possibility after Atomic bomb used U.S. becomes a Creditor and World Power

102 Goal 10 and 11 Cold War

103 United States and Soviet Union American Foreign Policy- “CONTAINMENT” of COMMUNISM and DOMINO THEORY Europe divided Eastern controlled by Soviet Union

104 Truman and Cold War CONTAINMENT Marshall Plan-provide financial aid to Western Europe, promote Democracy Berlin Airlift-provide assistance to West Berlin when cut off by Soviet Union

105 Korean War Failure of Containment Causes North Korea V. South Korea 38 th Parallel UN forces 90% American Soldiers MacArthur urges attack on China (Communist) Truman Fires MacArthur War end in Stalemate….still 38 th Parallel

106 Cold War Alliances Satellite Nations NATO-agree to defend nations attacked by Soviet Union SEATO-U.S. and pacific nations Warsaw Pact-Soviet Union and Eastern Europe alliance

107 “McArthyism” Fear of Communism in America-----result of failures of Containment in Korean War Loyalty Review Board-investigate loyalty of gov. officials House Un-American Activities Committee-hold hearings on suspected “enemies of the state”

108 Bay of Pigs failed invasion of Cuba supported by US CIA and Cuban Exiles Relationship US and Cuba deteriorates tensions increased because of Castro’s military alliance with the Soviet Union.

109 Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy, Krushchev, Soviet Missiles in Cuba……13 days Closest America comes to Nuclear War

110 50’s culture “Automania”-leads to suburbia, Levitttown G.I. Bill makes loans available to Veterans “Baby boomers-” largest number of babies born in America “White Flight” whites move to suburbs Feminine Mystique-encourages women to seek a profession

111 Vietnam War Domino Theory----(Kennedy to Johnson) Nixon-”Vietnamization” policy to end involvement in Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution-expands war powers of president, U.S. troops sent to Vietnam My Lai Incident-revealed to Americans the truth about the war, public opinion changes War Powers Act of 1973-limits the war powers of the President

112 Watergate Scandal Nixon and Democratic Headquarters U.S. V. Nixon- President not protected with executive privilege in judicial matters. Limits role of private contributions to Presidential candidates

113 Civil Rights Movement Brown v Board of Education (1954) –ends segregation in schools, Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson, “Separate but equal is inherently unequal” Swann vs. Charlotte-Mecklenburg integrated schools by legalizing the use of forced busing Civil Disobedience: peaceful demonstrations: marches and sit-ins Civil Rights Act of 1964-prohibits discrimination in public places (ending Jim Crow Laws) 24 th amendment…ends poll taxes

114 Affirmative Action Improve hiring practices for women and minorities Regents vs. Blakke (1978): declared the use of racial classifications for college admissions should be limited…affirmative action was reverse discrimination Title IX legislation(1972) schools & universities must spend equal amount of money for men and women athletic programs

115 Ford 1970’s Pardon’s Nixon OPEC…and oil embargo Battles Stagflation

116 Carter Stagflation: inflation (higher prices) with high unemployment 3 Mile Island – Nuclear plant dangerous near “melt down” incident Energy Crisis of the 1970s: US citizens purchased more fuel-efficient cars HUMAN RIGHTS Iran Hostage Crisis November 4, 1979, armed students seized the US embassy in Tehran and took 52 Americans hostage

117 Reagan Rise of Conservatism – Gov Deregulation – Cut gov programs Reagonomics – tax cuts and trickle down economics Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act (1985): main concept was to mandate automatic across-the-board spending cuts Star Wars – Reagan’s plan for a missile defense system… Berlin Wall Torn Down Afghanistan – U.S. supports Taliban who fight the Soviet Union Iran-Nicaragua –

118 George H. W. Bush Persian Gulf War: Desert Storm 1991 Liberation of Kuwait from Iraq (drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait) Texas v. Johnson: flag burning is form of protest and protected by Constitution

119 Clinton NAFTA: free trade Regarded universal health care as a major issue for the federal government to resolve Brady Bill: limit gun rights

120 George W. Bush No Child Left Behind Act (2001) Terrorism 9/11 attacks: Al-Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden responsible Department of Homeland Security Patriot Act-monitor suspected terrorists Afghanistan and Iraq Operation Iraqi Freedom Operation Enduring Freedom


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