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Dr Joseph Obe Dr Joe Website: FB: Joseph Obe.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Joseph Obe Dr Joe Website: FB: Joseph Obe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Joseph Obe Dr Joe Website: FB: Joseph Obe

2 TV Programme Writing & Production An Introduction

3 Course Overview The aim of this course is to prepare you as television writers and producers. It also prepares you to work in the production offices and on the sets of major TV shows throughout the world.

4 What you will learn How to write, create, produce genres of TV programmes How to become a successful writer, and TV producer

5 Topic 1:History and development of broadcast news TV News is traceable to the 1960s with the exodus of print journalists into the TV room. The growth of TV news was accelerated by the assassination of John Kennedy. The death was one of the events that shaped TV history

6 12 events that shaped TV news history Event 1: The 1963 Assassination of John F Kennedy Event 2: The 1968 Walter Cronkite Shifting of Public Opinion of the Vietnam War

7 12 events that shaped TV news history Event 3: The 1974 Watergate Scandal Event 4: In1979, the Iran Hostage Crisis Creates New Type of TV News Programme

8 12 events that shaped TV news history Event 5: The 1986 space shuttle disaster watched by Children Event 6: In 1987, Fairness Doctrine Repeal Creates Modern Talk Radio

9 12 events that shaped TV news history Event 7: The 1991 Persian Gulf War is Broadcast on Live TV Event 8: In 1994: O.J. Simpson Drama Rivets the World's Attention. Ex footballer killing his ex-wife. Just like Oscar Pistorius

10 12 events that shaped TV news history Event 9: The 1998 Monica Lewinsky Scandal Puts Sex in the Mainstream Event 10: The 2000 American Presidential Election Errors in Judgment

11 12 events that shaped TV news history Event 11: The 2001: Coverage of 9/11 Event 12: 2007: Social Media Takes the Lead in Breaking News

12 Class Quiz 10 marks Briefly discuss six events that shaped TV news History

13 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

14 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions Assignment Editors Assignment editors are responsible for assigning stories to reporters. They send teams of reporters, camera operators and other support staff on location to film breaking news as necessary.

15 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions Film and Video Editors Film and video editors edit soundtracks, film and video. They construct a finished film clip from many different shots, often done on a computer. They may work for local television affiliates, cable and television networks or independent production companies. Film and video editors may edit their footage according to a script given to them by producers or others involved in production. They trim film segments to run in an allotted amount of time. They edit audio and visual effects. They check the finished product for continuity and smoothness. Electronic news- gathering operators (ENGs) gather news on location and edit the raw footage on the spot. They travel frequently, often stay on location for long periods of time, work long hours and may have to travel on short notice.

16 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions ACCOUNT EXECUTIVE - The person who sells advertising time and works closely with businesses to help them market themselves to the station's listeners or viewers.

17 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions ANNOUNCER - Announcers are a radio station's "voice" and are often the people with whom the public identifies. This person introduces programs and music, reads commercial copy and public service announcements, and is involved in the overall public presentation of the station.

18 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions CHIEF ENGINEER - The chief engineer is responsible for the technology necessary to put the station's broadcast on the air. The engineer works to maintain broadcasting capabilities and provide quick solutions to problems that may arise with the transmitter, tower, satellite receiver and other related equipment.

19 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions COPY WRITER - This staff member writes commercial and promotional copy in support of the station's sales, marketing and promotion efforts.

20 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions MUSIC DIRECTOR - This person manages the station's music library and works with the program director in selecting new recordings to be played as they are submitted by record companies.

21 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions NEWS DIRECTOR - The news director runs the news department. The news director assigns stories to reporters on staff, monitors the wire service and is involved with identifying the important news issues within the community.

22 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions PRODUCTION DIRECTOR - The production manager assigns announcers, schedules studios, arranges recording sessions, produces commercials, and directs programmes.

23 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions PROMOTION DIRECTOR - This position promotes the station's image, programs and activities. The promotion director works closely with the program director to create on-air promotions and also with the sales department in securing new clients and maintaining current advertisers.

24 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions NEWS DIRECTOR - The news director runs the news department. The news director assigns stories to reporters on staff, monitors the wire service and is involved with identifying the important news issues within the community.

25 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions PROGRAMME DIRECTOR - Responsible for the entire on-air product, the PD governs the sound of the stations. With control over production, talent, work schedules, and program schedules, the PD's programming objectives support the goals of the general manager and the general sales manager.

26 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions SPORTS DIRECTOR - This position is similar to the news director position. Sports directors often handle the play-by-play coverage of local sporting events. Stations that do a lot of sports sometimes hire a "colour" announcer to complement the play-by-play talent.

27 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions TRAFFIC DIRECTOR - Collects data from other departments in order to prepare a minute-by-minute schedule for the broadcast day. The traffic person is the daily link between the sales department and programming department, keeping up-to-date commercial time availability.

28 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions MASTER CONTROL/VIDEOTAPE ENGINEER - Responsible for operating the videotape recording and playback equipment for live programmes and during commercial breaks in network and taped shows.

29 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions NEWS ANCHOR - The most visible members of the news staff. These are the people that appear as the "up front" personalities on local newscasts. Ideally, the news anchor is a complete journalist, familiar with reporting, on- scene live coverage and skilled at writing, and in some cases, producing news packages.

30 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions NEWS DIRECTOR - The news director supervises the news department. Must understand budgeting, personnel management and the technical aspects of television. In addition to having a firm understanding of the community service role of broadcast journalism, he or she must also have solid news judgment - the ability to determine which stories are most informative and of the greatest value to the local viewer.

31 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

32 NEWS REPORTERS The key "front-line" people in the news department. They are on-the-scene at every kind of event. Local news reporters must be excellent writers, capable of working quickly and accurately to sum up the key elements of a news story and make it understandable and relevant to the audience.

33 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions STAGE MANAGER - The director's representative on the studio floor and at the site of any live broadcast.

34 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions STATION MANAGER - The chief operating officer of the station. The station manager must have effective personnel management skills and a thorough knowledge of all aspects of broadcast operation.

35 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions STUDIO ENGINEERS - Responsible for operating all of the equipment necessary for the production of a programme. This includes the studio cameras, the audio console, studio lighting, the video switcher, and in some stations, the character generator and the electronic still-storage graphics display equipment.

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37 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions Class Exercise Each student to write out what role they will play in news production and why they think they have got the flair.

38 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions Portfolio Assignment 2 Each student to watch at least two live TV news broadcast and capture the names and titles of the production crew. N.B: Clash of TV station is discouraged 5 marks

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40 Topic 4: Best Practices in TV news Chicago TV station admits mistakes in airing misleading interview with 4-year-old boy A Chicago TV station now says it made two ethical mistakes when it aired an interview with a 4-year-old boy last month. The first mistake was interviewing a child at a crime scene. But things grew even worse when the station edited the boys interview in a way that made it seem as though the African American child idolized guns and criminals. In fact, the child told the photographer that he wanted to be a police officer. The station edited out that part of the interview.

41 The video, which Kiernan says was supplied by a stringer, included this exchange: 4-year-old boy: Im not scared of nothing. Photographer: When you get older are you going to stay away from all these guns? Boy: No. Photographer: No? What are you going to do when you get older? Boy: Im going to have me a gun!

42 Heres the complete exchange, with the deleted portion in bold: Photographer: Boy, you aint scared of nothing! Damn! When you get older are you going to stay away from all these guns? Boy: No. Photographer: No? What are you going to do when you get older? Boy: Im going to have me a gun! Photographer: You are! Why do you want to do that? Boy: Im going to be the police! Photographer: OK, then you can have one.

43 Guidelines for interviewing juveniles When interviewing juveniles, journalists should consider: Journalistic Purpose and Quality of Information What is my journalistic purpose in interviewing this juvenile? In what light will this person be shown? What is their understanding or ability to understand how viewers or listeners might perceive the interview? How mature is this juvenile? How aware is he/she of the ramifications of his/her comments? What motivations does the juvenile have in cooperating with this interview? How do you know what this young person says is true? How much of what this young person says does he/she know first- hand? How able are they to put what they know into context? Do others, adults, know the same information? How can you corroborate the juveniles information? How clearly have you identified yourself to the juvenile? Do they know they are talking to a reporter?

44 Minimize Harm What harm can you cause by asking questions or taking pictures of the juvenile even if the journalist never includes the interview or pictures in a story? How would you react if you were the parent of this child? What would your concerns be and how would you want to be included in the decision about whether the child is included in a news story? How can you include a parent or guardian in the decision to interview a juvenile? What effort has the journalist made to secure parental permission for the child to be included in a news story? Is it possible to have the parent/guardian present during the course of the interview? What are the parents motivations for allowing the child to be interviewed? Are there legal issues you should consider, such as the legal age of consent in your state? If you conclude that parental consent is not required, at least give the child your business card so the parents can contact you if they have an objection to the interview being used.

45 Explore Alternatives What alternatives can you use instead of interviewing a child on camera? What are the potential short-term and long-term and consequences of this persons comments? What rules or guidelines does my news organization have about interviewing juveniles? Do those guidelines change if the juvenile is a suspect in a crime and not a victim? What protocols should your newsroom consider for live coverage that could involve juveniles? How would you justify your decision to include this juvenile in your story to your newsroom and to viewers or listeners, to the juveniles parents? The Golden Rule for Interviewing Children: Do unto other peoples kids as you would have them do unto your kids.

46 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

47 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

48 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

49 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

50 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

51 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

52 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

53 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

54 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

55 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

56 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

57 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

58 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

59 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

60 Topic 3: TV news job descriptions News Writers and Broadcast News Analysts News writers write and edit their stories based on reports from correspondents or reporters. Broadcast news analysts select the most pertinent and interesting material to present and edit it for content and time.

61 TV Programme Writing & Production An Introduction

62 TV Programme Writing & Production An Introduction

63 TV Programme Writing & Production An Introduction

64 TV Programme Writing & Production An Introduction


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